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Key to Carex, Key F: Subkey in Carex

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1 Apex of perigynium beak terminated by 2 teeth, mostly > 0.5 mm long.
..2 Perigynia > 4× as long as wide (8-15 × 1-3 mm).
..2 Perigynia < 4× as long as wide.
......4 Perigynia > (9-) 10 mm long.
........5 Sheaths, at least the proximal sheath fronts, densely tomentose at mouth; apical teeth of perigynium beak often > 1 mm long
........5 Sheaths glabrous; apical teeth of perigynium beak not more than 1 mm.
..........6 Perigynia 12-34-veined.
............ 7 Basal and proximal leaf sheaths yellowish to brown, without trace of red or purple
......4 Perigynia < 10 mm long.
............ ..8 At least proximal pistillate scales with long, rough awn.
............ ....9 Perigynia with 5+ strong veins extending length of bodies; leaves septate-nodulose.
............ ......10 Perigynium beak with apical teeth < 1 mm long.
............ ........11 Perigynium body ovoid or lanceoloid or ellipsoid, widest at middle or proximally; proximal bract usually < 2× as long as the inflorescence.
............ ............ 13 Culms with some red or purple at base.
............ ............ 13 Culms brown or black at base, without trace of red or purple.
1 Apex of perigynium beak entire, emarginate, or with teeth mostly < 0.5 mm long.
............ ............ ........17 Leaf blades variously hairy.
............ ............ ............ 19 Bracts, at least the proximal, with distinct blade.
............ ............ ............ ....21 Young leaves V-shaped or rounded in cross section, adaxial surface without 2 marginal veins more prominent than midvein or other veins.
............ ............ ............ ......22 Perigynium beak with 2 distinct terminal teeth, usually > 0.2 mm long.
............ ............ ............ ........23 At least proximal pistillate scales awned, awn at least 1/2 as long as body; leaves conspicuously septate-nodulose.
............ ............ ............ ..........24 Base of culm brown, without or with only trace of red or purple; leaves 4-15 mm wide.
............ ............ ............ ........23 Pistillate scales obtuse to acuminate, sometimes very shortly awned; leaves not or only weakly septate-nodulose.
............ ............ ............ ............ ..26 Plants with short-ascending rhizomes; leaves at least sparingly septate-nodulose.
............ ............ ............ ............ ......28 Perigynia tapering at base, sides straight or only slightly convex proximally.
............ ............ ............ ....21 Leaf blades M-shaped in cross section when young, adaxial surface with 2 marginal veins more prominent than midvein and other marginal veins, sometimes apparent only on proximal leaves and on proximal part of blade.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......34 Perigynium beakless or with beak < 0.5 mm long, entire or with 2 apical teeth < 0.1 mm long.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..38 Perigynia at least slightly prominently veined or veinless except for 2 marginal veins.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......34 Perigynium with distinct beak > 0.5 mm, usually with apical teeth > 0.1 mm long.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..44 Perigynia with 2 distinct marginal veins, otherwise veinless or with very weak veins proximally.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....51 Pistillate spikes dense, proximal and middle perigynia separated by internodes less than 1/10 their length; proximal leaves and sheaths sparingly septate-nodulose.
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