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Keyed in multiple places:

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Key to Carex, Key C: Subkey in Carex

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..2 Lateral spikes usually pedunculate; lowermost inflorescence bracts sometimes with sheath; peduncles with prophyll at base.
....3 Terminal spike gynecandrous, pistillate flowers as many as or more numerous than staminate; lateral spikes short, not much longer than wide; fresh perigynia white-pulverulent
....3 Terminal spike usually staminate or, sometimes, gynecandrous, staminate flowers then more numerous than pistillate; lateral spikes oblong, distinctly longer than wide; fresh perigynia green or slightly glaucous.
..2 Lateral spikes sessile; bracts sheathless; peduncles without (or rarely with) a prophyll
..........6 Perigynia papillose (visible at 20× magnification).
image of plant
Show caption*© Scott Ward
............ 7 Terminal spike staminate or gynecandrous (if gynecandrous, the pistillate flowers more numerous than the staminate); lateral spikes not much longer than wide
............ ..........12 Margins of perigynia flat, at least in the upper ½, flat portion (measured at the tip of the achene and base of beak) > (0.1-) 0.2 mm wider
............ ............ 13 Achenes rounded at apex (style dehiscing at the surface of the achene); style conspicuously enlarged at the base
............ ............ 13 Achenes with short apiculus formed by the persistent base of the style; style not conspicuously enlarged at base
............ ..........12 Margins of perigynia rounded, or with flat portion < 0.1 mm wide.
............ ............ ..14 Margins of perigynia rounded or with a very narrow rounded edge; achenes nearly filling the perigynium bodies
............ ............ ..14 Margins of perigynia sharply edged or narrowly winged; achenes distinctly smaller than the perigynium bodies.
............ ............ ....15 Inflorescences in fruit 1.5-2 (or more)× as long as wide.
............ ..8 Terminal spike androgynous (rarely entirely staminate or entirely pistillate); lateral spikes androgynous, staminate, or pistillate.
............ ....9 Sheath fronts of lower cauline leaves transversely rugose.
............ ......10 Perigynia mostly < 2× as long as wide, widest near middle.
............ ........11 Inflorescence usually branched, at least at the base, usually with > 15 spikes; pistillate scales usually yellow or brown, sometimes with hyaline margins, 3-veined
............ ....9 Sheath fronts of lower cauline leaves smooth (or very weakly and indistinctly transversely rugose).
............ ............ ..........18 Fronts of leaf sheaths dotted red, brown, or yellow.
............ ............ ............ 19 Perigynia widest near the middle; culms usually < 1 mm wide.
............ ............ ..........18 Fronts of leaf sheaths not dotted red, brown, or yellow.
............ ............ ............ ......22 Upper leaves of culms with front of sheaths green-veined, not differentiated from the rest of the sheath
............ ............ ............ ......22 Upper leaves of culms with front of sheaths with at least a narrow hyaline or whitish-hyaline band extending at least ½ the length of the sheath.
............ ............ ............ ........23 Perigynia without a flat margin, or with a flat margin < 0.1 mm wide; plants short-rhizomatous or inconspicuously rhizomatous, cespitose or not, sometimes forming large colonies.
image of plant
Show caption*© Scott Ward
............ ............ ............ ............ ..26 Spikes consistently androgynous, occasionally some of the lateral spikes entirely pistillate.

Key to Carex, Key E: Subkey in Carex

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1 Apex of perigynium beak with 2 teeth at least (0.4-) 0.5 mm long.
..2 Perigynia with 2 distinct marginal veins, otherwise veinless or only very faintly veined; leaves not septate-nodulose
..2 Perigynia with 5+ distinct veins; at least proximal leaves septate-nodulose, rarely not.
....3 Perigynia with serrulate wing on margins; spikes usually 20+, sessile, pistillate or androgynous and similar in appearance, forming a dense, ovoid or oblong head, rarely with proximal spike separated
....3 Perigynia without wing on margins; spikes not more than 10, usually at least proximal shortly pedunculate, sometimes subsessile, distal and proximal spikes usually dissimilar in appearance, usually not crowded into a dense head.
......4 Pistillate scales obtuse to acuminate, awnless or at most with a rough apiculus.
........5 Staminate spikes usually 1-3+; perigynia 6-15 (-22)-veined, each 4-10 (-12.5) mm.
..........6 Perigynia 14-25-veined
......4 Pistillate scales, at least some, with a scabrous awn.
............ ..8 Perigynia (9-) 10+ mm long.
............ ......10 Upper pistillate scales acute to short-awned, awn < ½ as long as the body.
............ ........11 Beak of perigynia with teeth often < 1 mm long.
............ ..........12 Staminate spikes 1-6; perigynium beak often < 1.7 mm long.
............ ............ 13 Perigynium veined to tip of body and often into beak; widest leaves mostly > 4 mm wide.
............ ............ ..14 Pistillate scales with margins serrulate distally; awn, when present, rough.
............ ............ ..14 Pistillate scales with margins entire; awn, when present, usually smooth.
1 Apex of perigynium beak entire, emarginate, or with 2 teeth < 0.5 mm long.
............ ............ ..........18 Perigynia minutely papillose, at least distally (at 20× magnification).
............ ............ ............ 19 Roots brown or black, without yellow-brown felty covering, rarely with white felty covering.
............ ............ ............ ............ ..26 Adaxial side of leaves with 2 marginal veins more prominent than midvein; young leaves M-shaped in cross section.
............ ............ ............ ............ ..26 Adaxial side of leaves without 2 marginal veins more prominent than midvein; young leaves V-shaped or rounded in cross section.
............ ............ ............ ............ ..........30 Leaves and/or sheaths pubescent, at least at junction of blade and sheath.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 31 Leaves < 8 mm wide, blades and usually also the sheaths pubescent.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....33 Style persistent on achene in fruit; larger leaves and sheaths usually at least sparsely septate-nodulose, rarely not.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..38 Leaf blades, at least widest, M-shaped in cross section when young, adaxial surface with 2 marginal veins more prominent than midvein.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..38 Leaf blades V-shaped in cross section when young, adaxial surface without 2 marginal veins more prominent than midvein.

Key to Carex, Key F: Subkey in Carex

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1 Apex of perigynium beak terminated by 2 teeth, mostly > 0.5 mm long.
..2 Perigynia > 4× as long as wide (8-15 × 1-3 mm).
..2 Perigynia < 4× as long as wide.
......4 Perigynia > (9-) 10 mm long.
........5 Sheaths, at least the proximal sheath fronts, densely tomentose at mouth; apical teeth of perigynium beak often > 1 mm long
........5 Sheaths glabrous; apical teeth of perigynium beak not more than 1 mm.
..........6 Perigynia 12-34-veined.
............ 7 Basal and proximal leaf sheaths yellowish to brown, without trace of red or purple
......4 Perigynia < 10 mm long.
............ ..8 At least proximal pistillate scales with long, rough awn.
............ ....9 Perigynia with 5+ strong veins extending length of bodies; leaves septate-nodulose.
............ ......10 Perigynium beak with apical teeth < 1 mm long.
............ ........11 Perigynium body ovoid or lanceoloid or ellipsoid, widest at middle or proximally; proximal bract usually < 2× as long as the inflorescence.
............ ............ 13 Culms with some red or purple at base.
............ ............ 13 Culms brown or black at base, without trace of red or purple.
1 Apex of perigynium beak entire, emarginate, or with teeth mostly < 0.5 mm long.
............ ............ ........17 Leaf blades variously hairy.
............ ............ ............ 19 Bracts, at least the proximal, with distinct blade.
............ ............ ............ ....21 Young leaves V-shaped or rounded in cross section, adaxial surface without 2 marginal veins more prominent than midvein or other veins.
............ ............ ............ ......22 Perigynium beak with 2 distinct terminal teeth, usually > 0.2 mm long.
............ ............ ............ ........23 At least proximal pistillate scales awned, awn at least 1/2 as long as body; leaves conspicuously septate-nodulose.
............ ............ ............ ..........24 Base of culm brown, without or with only trace of red or purple; leaves 4-15 mm wide.
............ ............ ............ ........23 Pistillate scales obtuse to acuminate, sometimes very shortly awned; leaves not or only weakly septate-nodulose.
............ ............ ............ ............ ..26 Plants with short-ascending rhizomes; leaves at least sparingly septate-nodulose.
............ ............ ............ ............ ......28 Perigynia tapering at base, sides straight or only slightly convex proximally.
............ ............ ............ ....21 Leaf blades M-shaped in cross section when young, adaxial surface with 2 marginal veins more prominent than midvein and other marginal veins, sometimes apparent only on proximal leaves and on proximal part of blade.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......34 Perigynium beakless or with beak < 0.5 mm long, entire or with 2 apical teeth < 0.1 mm long.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..38 Perigynia at least slightly prominently veined or veinless except for 2 marginal veins.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......34 Perigynium with distinct beak > 0.5 mm, usually with apical teeth > 0.1 mm long.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..44 Perigynia with 2 distinct marginal veins, otherwise veinless or with very weak veins proximally.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....51 Pistillate spikes dense, proximal and middle perigynia separated by internodes less than 1/10 their length; proximal leaves and sheaths sparingly septate-nodulose.
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