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Key to Carex, Key C: Subkey in Carex

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  2 Lateral spikes usually pedunculate; lowermost inflorescence bracts sometimes with sheath; peduncles with prophyll at base.
    3 Terminal spike gynecandrous, pistillate flowers as many as or more numerous than staminate; lateral spikes short, not much longer than wide; fresh perigynia white-pulverulent
    3 Terminal spike usually staminate or, sometimes, gynecandrous, staminate flowers then more numerous than pistillate; lateral spikes oblong, distinctly longer than wide; fresh perigynia green or slightly glaucous.
  2 Lateral spikes sessile; bracts sheathless; peduncles without (or rarely with) a prophyll
          6 Perigynia papillose (visible at 20× magnification).
                       12 Margins of perigynia flat, at least in the upper ½, flat portion (measured at the tip of the achene and base of beak) > (0.1-) 0.2 mm wider
                          13 Achenes rounded at apex (style dehiscing at the surface of the achene); style conspicuously enlarged at the base
                       12 Margins of perigynia rounded, or with flat portion < 0.1 mm wide.
                            14 Margins of perigynia sharply edged or narrowly winged; achenes distinctly smaller than the perigynium bodies.
                              15 Inflorescences in fruit 1.5-2 (or more)× as long as wide.
                 9 Sheath fronts of lower cauline leaves transversely rugose.
                   10 Perigynia mostly < 2× as long as wide, widest near middle.
                     11 Inflorescence usually branched, at least at the base, usually with > 15 spikes; pistillate scales usually yellow or brown, sometimes with hyaline margins, 3-veined
                 9 Sheath fronts of lower cauline leaves smooth (or very weakly and indistinctly transversely rugose).
                                    18 Fronts of leaf sheaths not dotted red, brown, or yellow.
                                             22 Upper leaves of culms with front of sheaths with at least a narrow hyaline or whitish-hyaline band extending at least ½ the length of the sheath.
                                               23 Perigynia without a flat margin, or with a flat margin < 0.1 mm wide; plants short-rhizomatous or inconspicuously rhizomatous, cespitose or not, sometimes forming large colonies.
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