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Key to Paspalum

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1 Both lower and upper glumes absent, or upper glume present on terminal spikelet only of a panicle branch.
..2 Plants stoloniferous; culms to 40 cm long; blades to 4 mm wide; spikelets 3.8-5.2 mm long, apex acuminate; upper glume sometimes present on terminal spikelet of a panicle branch
..2 Plants cespitose; culms to 200 cm long; blades to 35 mm wide; spikelets 1.8-2 mm long, apex obtuse; both glumes absent from all spikelets
1 At least upper glume present on all spikelets.
....3 Spikelets solitary, not associated with rudimentary spikelets or naked pedicels.
......4 Panicles usually composed of a terminal pair of branches, sometimes with 1 (-5) additional branches below the terminal pair.
........5 Upper glumes pubescent on the back or margins.
..........6 Spikelets 1.3-1.9 mm long; upper glumes pilose along the margins; ligules 0.5-0.8 mm long; panicle branch axis 0.2-0.8 mm wide
..........6 Spikelets 2.4-3.2 mm long; upper glumes sparsely pubescent on the back; ligules 1-2 mm long; panicle branch axis 1.2-2.2 mm wide
........5 Upper glumes glabrous.
............ 7 Spikelets elliptic, the tip acute or acuminate.
............ ..8 Plants short-rhizomatous, culms appearing cespitose; blades to 4 mm wide; spikelets 3-3.6 mm long; lower lemmas 5-veined; upper florets stramineous to golden brown; most frequently found along roadsides and in pastures
............ ..8 Plants rhizomatous, the culms separate; blades to 8 mm wide; spikelets 3-4.5 mm long; lower lemmas 3-veined; upper florets white; most frequently found in brackish and salt marshes
............ 7 Spikelets ovate to broadly elliptic, the tip obtuse to broadly acute.
............ ....9 Culms to 60 cm long; blades flat; panicle branches to 6.4 cm long; spikelets 1.9-2.3 mm long, 1.2-2 mm wide; upper glumes 3-veined
............ ....9 Culms to 120 cm long; blades flat or longitudinally folded; panicle branches to 15 cm long; spikelets 2.5-4 mm long, 2-2.8 mm wide; upper glumes 5-veined
......4 Panicles with 1-70 branches; if > 1, the branches arranged racemosely, the 2 uppermost not paired.
............ ......10 Panicle branches 7-70, the axes extending beyond the outermost spikelets; panicle branches disarticulating at maturity
............ ......10 Panicle branches 1-6, terminating in a spikelet; panicle branches persistent.
............ ........11 Upper florets olive to dark brown
............ ........11 Upper florets pale to tan.
............ ..........12 Axes of panicle branches not broadly winged, 0.6-1.3 mm wide.
............ ............ 13 Spikelets slightly longer than broad, 2.0-2.5 mm wide
............ ..........12 Axes of panicle branches broadly winged, 1.8-3.3 mm wide.
............ ............ ..14 Culms to 100 cm long; spikelets 3.2-4 mm long, 1.6-1.7 mm wide; upper lemmas with a few short hairs at their tips; caryopses 2-3 mm long
............ ............ ..14 Culms to 50 cm long; spikelets 1.7-2.1 mm long 1.1-1.4 mm wide; upper lemmas glabrous; caryopses 1-1.3 mm long
....3 Spikelets paired, or at least the second nonfunctional spikelet represented by a naked pedicel.
............ ............ ....15 Spikelets 1.0-1.3 mm long
............ ............ ......16 Nodes glabrous; blades 1.9-8 mm wide; panicle branches 2-6; upper florets 0.8-1.1 mm long
............ ............ ......16 Nodes pubescent; blades 10-24 mm wide; panicle branches 18-50; upper florets 1.1-1.3 mm long
............ ............ ....15 Spikelets 1.3-4.1 mm long.
............ ............ ........17 Margins of upper glumes and lower lemmas fimbriate, or ciliate with soft hairs 5 mm or more long.
............ ............ ..........18 Culms to 70 cm long; upper glumes and lower lemmas broadly winged, the wing fimbriate; spikelets 2.4-3 mm wide
............ ............ ..........18 Culms to 220 cm long; margins of upper glume and lower lemmas long-ciliate, wingless; spikelets 1.1-2.5 mm wide.
............ ............ ............ 19 Panicle branches 2-7; spikelets 2.3-4.0 mm long, 1.7-2.5 mm wide
............ ............ ............ 19 Panicle branches (4-) 10-30; spikelets 1.8-2.8 mm long, 1.1-1.5 mm wide
............ ............ ........17 Margins of upper glumes and lower lemmas glabrous or pubescent, but not winged, fimbriate, or long-ciliate.
............ ............ ............ ..20 Upper florets olive to dark brown.
............ ............ ............ ....21 Plants aquatic AND culms decumbent; lower glumes often present
............ ............ ............ ....21 Plants either not aquatic OR if aquatic then with erect culms; lower glumes absent.
............ ............ ............ ......22 Panicle branches 10-28 (occasionally more).
............ ............ ............ ........23 Plants annual; axes of panicle branches broadly winged, the wings about as wide as the central portion; [common native]
............ ............ ............ ........23 Plants perennial; axes of panicle branches narrowly winged, the wings narrower than the central portion; [rare exotics].
............ ............ ............ ..........24 Blades 7-18 mm wide; axes of panicle branches 0.5-1.2 mm wide; spikelets 1.1-1.8 mm wide; upper florets 1.8-2.2 mm long
............ ............ ............ ..........24 Blades 10-30 mm wide; axes of panicle branches 1-1.7 mm wide; spikelets 1.8-2.4 mm wide; upper florets 2.5-2.7 mm long
............ ............ ............ ............ ..26 Blades to 15 mm wide; panicle branches 1-10 (-28); branch axes 0.7-2.3 mm wide; spikelets 2-2.2 mm long
............ ............ ............ ............ ..26 Blades to 7 mm wide; panicle branches 2-8; branch axes 0.6-1.1 mm wide; spikelets 2.2-3 mm long.
............ ............ ............ ............ ....27 Panicle branches 2-7, 1.6-7.1 cm long; spikelets 2.5-3 mm long, 1.5-2.2 mm wide; upper florets dark brown
............ ............ ............ ............ ....27 Panicle branches 5-8, 3.5-11 cm long; spikelets 2.2-2.7 mm long, 1-1.4 mm wide; upper florets chestnut brown
............ ............ ............ ............ ......28 Rhizomes 5-25 cm long; ligule 1.2-1.5 mm long; panicle branches to 5.2 cm long; mature lower lemma transversely rugose
............ ............ ............ ............ ......28 Rhizomes indistinct or absent; ligule 1-4.1 mm long; panicle branches to 11 cm long; mature lower lemma not transversely rugose.
............ ............ ............ ............ ........29 Ligules 1-2 mm long; panicle branches 4-13, 6-11 cm long; spikelets 1.1-1.8 mm wide
............ ............ ............ ............ ........29 Ligules 2-4.1 mm long; panicle branches 1-7, 1.1-7.1 cm long; spikelets 1.5-2.4 mm wide.
............ ............ ............ ............ ..........30 Plants annual; culms to 53 cm long; blades to 12 mm wide, flat; ligules 2-4.1 mm long; branch axes 0.8-1.3 mm wide; spikelets 2.1-2.6 mm long
............ ............ ............ ............ ..........30 Plants perennial; culms to 110 cm long; blades to 5.4 mm wide, usually conduplicate; ligules 2-3 mm long; branch axes 0.6-1.1 mm wide; spikelets 2.5-3 mm long
............ ............ ............ ..20 Upper florets white, stramineous, or golden brown.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..32 Plants annual; ligules 0.1-0.3 mm long; blades to 13 cm long; panicle branches to 2.5 cm long; upper glumes and lower lemmas rugose
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..32 Plants perennial; ligules 1-6.3 mm long; blades to 62 cm long; panicle branches to 13 cm long; upper glumes and lower lemmas smooth.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......34 Culms to 400 cm long; blades 10-23 mm wide; panicle branches 5-13 cm long, spreading to reflexed; spikelets 1.8-1.9 mm wide
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......34 Culms to 180 cm long; blades 4.9-6.1 mm wide; panicle branches 1.2-8.5 cm long, erect to ascending; spikelets 0.9-1.3 mm wide
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......40 Ligules 0.2-0.4 mm long; branch axes 0.2-0.5 mm wide; spikelets 1.3-2 mm long, 0.7-1 mm wide
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......40 Ligules 0.5-4.7 mm long; branch axes 0.3-2 mm wide; spikelets 1.6-3.1 mm long, 1-2.8 mm wide.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........41 Ligules 0.5-2.9 mm long; branch axes 0.4-2 mm wide, narrowly winged or wingless.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....45 Blades 0.2-2 (rarely -8) mm wide; panicle branch axes 0.5-1.2 mm wide; spikelets 2.3-3.7 mm long, 1.3-1.9 mm wide
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....45 Blades 3-7 mm wide; panicle branch axes 0.3-0.8 mm wide; spikelets 2.2-2.5 mm long, 1-1.3 mm wide
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......46 Spikelet pairs hardly imbricate, irregularly approximate, with evident gaps between groups of spikelets on the branches; lower glumes usually present; upper glumes (6-) 7-veined
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........47 Upper glumes and lower lemmas pubescent (sparsely so, if at all, in P. pubiflorum).
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........48 Panicle branches 1-4; branch axes 0.2-1 mm wide; spikelets 1.3-1.6 mm wide; lower glumes present
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........48 Panicle branches 4-9; branch axes 1.1-2.3 mm wide; spikelets 1.5-2 mm wide; lower glumes absent.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 49 Blades 2-5 mm wide; branches ascending to erect; branch axes 1.2-1.5 mm wide; spikelets 2.8-3 mm long, 1.5-1.6 mm wide
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 49 Blades 4-18 mm wide; branches ascending to spreading; branch axes 1.1-2.3 mm wide; spikelets 2.8-3.6 mm long, 1.5-2 mm wide.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......52 Plants aquatic; blades to 10 mm wide; panicle branches ascending to erect, to 12 cm long; spikelets 2.5-3 mm long, 1.3-1.6 mm wide; lower glumes often present; upper glumes and lower lemmas with 5 veins
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......52 Plants terrestrial; blades to 18 mm wide; panicle branches ascending to spreading, to 7.9 cm long; spikelets 2.8-3.6 mm long, 1.5-2 mm wide; lower glumes absent; upper glumes and lower lemmas with 3 veins.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 55 Ligules to 3.3 mm long; blades to 18 mm wide; spikelets 2.9-4.1 mm long; upper glumes 5-veined; upper florets golden brown
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 55 Ligules to 2.2 mm long; blades to 8.3 mm wide; spikelets 2.1-3.1 mm long; upper glumes 3-veined; upper florets white, straminous, light yellow or golden brown.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..56 Blades 3-4 mm wide, flat; panicle branches 1-3, erect, 7-15 cm long; spikelets 2.7-3 mm long, 1.4-2 mm wide
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..56 Blades 2.2-8.3 mm wide, folded to flat; panicle branches 2-10, ascending to spreading, 0.8-10.3 cm long; spikelets 2.1-3.1 mm long, 2-2.8 mm wide.
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