Colors

Data mode

Account

Login
Sign up

X
Keyed in multiple places:

Click the number at the start of a key lead to highlight both that lead and its corresponding lead. Click again to show only the two highlighted leads. Click a third time to return to the full key with the selected leads still highlighted.

Key to Paspalum

Copy permalink to share

1 Both lower and upper glumes absent, or upper glume present on terminal spikelet only of a panicle branch.
..2 Plants stoloniferous; culms to 40 cm long; blades to 4 mm wide; spikelets 3.8-5.2 mm long, apex acuminate; upper glume sometimes present on terminal spikelet of a panicle branch
..2 Plants cespitose; culms to 200 cm long; blades to 35 mm wide; spikelets 1.8-2 mm long, apex obtuse; both glumes absent from all spikelets
1 At least upper glume present on all spikelets.
....3 Spikelets solitary, not associated with rudimentary spikelets or naked pedicels.
......4 Panicles usually composed of a terminal pair of branches, sometimes with 1 (-5) additional branches below the terminal pair.
........5 Upper glumes pubescent on the back or margins.
..........6 Spikelets 1.3-1.9 mm long; upper glumes pilose along the margins; ligules 0.5-0.8 mm long; panicle branch axis 0.2-0.8 mm wide
..........6 Spikelets 2.4-3.2 mm long; upper glumes sparsely pubescent on the back; ligules 1-2 mm long; panicle branch axis 1.2-2.2 mm wide
........5 Upper glumes glabrous.
............ 7 Spikelets elliptic, the tip acute or acuminate.
............ ..8 Plants short-rhizomatous, culms appearing cespitose; blades to 4 mm wide; spikelets 3-3.6 mm long; lower lemmas 5-veined; upper florets stramineous to golden brown; most frequently found along roadsides and in pastures
............ ..8 Plants rhizomatous, the culms separate; blades to 8 mm wide; spikelets 3-4.5 mm long; lower lemmas 3-veined; upper florets white; most frequently found in brackish and salt marshes
............ 7 Spikelets ovate to broadly elliptic, the tip obtuse to broadly acute.
............ ....9 Culms to 60 cm long; blades flat; panicle branches to 6.4 cm long; spikelets 1.9-2.3 mm long, 1.2-2 mm wide; upper glumes 3-veined
............ ....9 Culms to 120 cm long; blades flat or longitudinally folded; panicle branches to 15 cm long; spikelets 2.5-4 mm long, 2-2.8 mm wide; upper glumes 5-veined
......4 Panicles with 1-70 branches; if > 1, the branches arranged racemosely, the 2 uppermost not paired.
............ ......10 Panicle branches 7-70, the axes extending beyond the outermost spikelets; panicle branches disarticulating at maturity
............ ......10 Panicle branches 1-6, terminating in a spikelet; panicle branches persistent.
............ ........11 Upper florets olive to dark brown
............ ........11 Upper florets pale to tan.
............ ..........12 Axes of panicle branches not broadly winged, 0.6-1.3 mm wide.
............ ............ 13 Spikelets orbicular, 2.8-3.2 mm wide
............ ............ 13 Spikelets slightly longer than broad, 2.0-2.5 mm wide
............ ..........12 Axes of panicle branches broadly winged, 1.8-3.3 mm wide.
............ ............ ..14 Culms to 100 cm long; spikelets 3.2-4 mm long, 1.6-1.7 mm wide; upper lemmas with a few short hairs at their tips; caryopses 2-3 mm long
............ ............ ..14 Culms to 50 cm long; spikelets 1.7-2.1 mm long 1.1-1.4 mm wide; upper lemmas glabrous; caryopses 1-1.3 mm long
....3 Spikelets paired, or at least the second nonfunctional spikelet represented by a naked pedicel.
............ ............ ....15 Spikelets 1.0-1.3 mm long
............ ............ ......16 Nodes glabrous; blades 1.9-8 mm wide; panicle branches 2-6; upper florets 0.8-1.1 mm long
............ ............ ......16 Nodes pubescent; blades 10-24 mm wide; panicle branches 18-50; upper florets 1.1-1.3 mm long
............ ............ ....15 Spikelets 1.3-4.1 mm long.
............ ............ ........17 Margins of upper glumes and lower lemmas fimbriate, or ciliate with soft hairs 5 mm or more long.
............ ............ ..........18 Culms to 70 cm long; upper glumes and lower lemmas broadly winged, the wing fimbriate; spikelets 2.4-3 mm wide
............ ............ ..........18 Culms to 220 cm long; margins of upper glume and lower lemmas long-ciliate, wingless; spikelets 1.1-2.5 mm wide.
............ ............ ............ 19 Panicle branches 2-7; spikelets 2.3-4.0 mm long, 1.7-2.5 mm wide
............ ............ ............ 19 Panicle branches (4-) 10-30; spikelets 1.8-2.8 mm long, 1.1-1.5 mm wide
............ ............ ........17 Margins of upper glumes and lower lemmas glabrous or pubescent, but not winged, fimbriate, or long-ciliate.
............ ............ ............ ..20 Upper florets olive to dark brown.
............ ............ ............ ....21 Plants aquatic AND culms decumbent; lower glumes often present
............ ............ ............ ....21 Plants either not aquatic OR if aquatic then with erect culms; lower glumes absent.
............ ............ ............ ......22 Panicle branches 10-28 (occasionally more).
............ ............ ............ ........23 Plants annual; axes of panicle branches broadly winged, the wings about as wide as the central portion; [common native]
............ ............ ............ ........23 Plants perennial; axes of panicle branches narrowly winged, the wings narrower than the central portion; [rare exotics].
............ ............ ............ ..........24 Blades 7-18 mm wide; axes of panicle branches 0.5-1.2 mm wide; spikelets 1.1-1.8 mm wide; upper florets 1.8-2.2 mm long
............ ............ ............ ..........24 Blades 10-30 mm wide; axes of panicle branches 1-1.7 mm wide; spikelets 1.8-2.4 mm wide; upper florets 2.5-2.7 mm long
............ ............ ............ ............ ..26 Blades to 15 mm wide; panicle branches 1-10 (-28); branch axes 0.7-2.3 mm wide; spikelets 2-2.2 mm long
............ ............ ............ ............ ..26 Blades to 7 mm wide; panicle branches 2-8; branch axes 0.6-1.1 mm wide; spikelets 2.2-3 mm long.
............ ............ ............ ............ ....27 Panicle branches 2-7, 1.6-7.1 cm long; spikelets 2.5-3 mm long, 1.5-2.2 mm wide; upper florets dark brown
............ ............ ............ ............ ....27 Panicle branches 5-8, 3.5-11 cm long; spikelets 2.2-2.7 mm long, 1-1.4 mm wide; upper florets chestnut brown
............ ............ ............ ............ ......28 Rhizomes 5-25 cm long; ligule 1.2-1.5 mm long; panicle branches to 5.2 cm long; mature lower lemma transversely rugose
............ ............ ............ ............ ......28 Rhizomes indistinct or absent; ligule 1-4.1 mm long; panicle branches to 11 cm long; mature lower lemma not transversely rugose.
............ ............ ............ ............ ........29 Ligules 1-2 mm long; panicle branches 4-13, 6-11 cm long; spikelets 1.1-1.8 mm wide
............ ............ ............ ............ ........29 Ligules 2-4.1 mm long; panicle branches 1-7, 1.1-7.1 cm long; spikelets 1.5-2.4 mm wide.
............ ............ ............ ............ ..........30 Plants annual; culms to 53 cm long; blades to 12 mm wide, flat; ligules 2-4.1 mm long; branch axes 0.8-1.3 mm wide; spikelets 2.1-2.6 mm long
............ ............ ............ ............ ..........30 Plants perennial; culms to 110 cm long; blades to 5.4 mm wide, usually conduplicate; ligules 2-3 mm long; branch axes 0.6-1.1 mm wide; spikelets 2.5-3 mm long
............ ............ ............ ..20 Upper florets white, stramineous, or golden brown.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..32 Plants annual; ligules 0.1-0.3 mm long; blades to 13 cm long; panicle branches to 2.5 cm long; upper glumes and lower lemmas rugose
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..32 Plants perennial; ligules 1-6.3 mm long; blades to 62 cm long; panicle branches to 13 cm long; upper glumes and lower lemmas smooth.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....33 Plants rhizomatous; nodes and sheaths glabrous; panicle branch axes 0.9-1.2 mm wide
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....33 Plants cespitose; nodes and sheaths pubescent; panicle branch axes 0.3-0.6 mm wide.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......34 Culms to 400 cm long; blades 10-23 mm wide; panicle branches 5-13 cm long, spreading to reflexed; spikelets 1.8-1.9 mm wide
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......34 Culms to 180 cm long; blades 4.9-6.1 mm wide; panicle branches 1.2-8.5 cm long, erect to ascending; spikelets 0.9-1.3 mm wide
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........36 Upper glumes and often lower lemmas shortly pubescent.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..38 Panicles both terminal and axillary, the axillary panicles partially or completely enclosed by the subtending leaf sheath
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....39 Panicles both terminal and axillary, the axillary panicles partially or completely enclosed by the subtending leaf sheath
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......40 Ligules 0.2-0.4 mm long; branch axes 0.2-0.5 mm wide; spikelets 1.3-2 mm long, 0.7-1 mm wide
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......40 Ligules 0.5-4.7 mm long; branch axes 0.3-2 mm wide; spikelets 1.6-3.1 mm long, 1-2.8 mm wide.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........41 Ligules 0.5-2.9 mm long; branch axes 0.4-2 mm wide, narrowly winged or wingless.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 43 Lower sheaths glabrous or sparsely papillose-pubescent; spikelets 2.2-2.8 mm long
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....45 Blades 0.2-2 (rarely -8) mm wide; panicle branch axes 0.5-1.2 mm wide; spikelets 2.3-3.7 mm long, 1.3-1.9 mm wide
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....45 Blades 3-7 mm wide; panicle branch axes 0.3-0.8 mm wide; spikelets 2.2-2.5 mm long, 1-1.3 mm wide
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......46 Spikelet pairs hardly imbricate, irregularly approximate, with evident gaps between groups of spikelets on the branches; lower glumes usually present; upper glumes (6-) 7-veined
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......46 Spikelet pairs imbricate; lower glumes absent or present; upper glumes 1-5-veined.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........47 Upper glumes and lower lemmas pubescent (sparsely so, if at all, in P. pubiflorum).
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........48 Panicle branches 1-4; branch axes 0.2-1 mm wide; spikelets 1.3-1.6 mm wide; lower glumes present
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........48 Panicle branches 4-9; branch axes 1.1-2.3 mm wide; spikelets 1.5-2 mm wide; lower glumes absent.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 49 Blades 2-5 mm wide; branches ascending to erect; branch axes 1.2-1.5 mm wide; spikelets 2.8-3 mm long, 1.5-1.6 mm wide
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 49 Blades 4-18 mm wide; branches ascending to spreading; branch axes 1.1-2.3 mm wide; spikelets 2.8-3.6 mm long, 1.5-2 mm wide.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........47 Upper glumes and lower lemmas glabrous (sometimes sparsely pubescent in P. pubiflorum).
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......52 Plants aquatic; blades to 10 mm wide; panicle branches ascending to erect, to 12 cm long; spikelets 2.5-3 mm long, 1.3-1.6 mm wide; lower glumes often present; upper glumes and lower lemmas with 5 veins
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......52 Plants terrestrial; blades to 18 mm wide; panicle branches ascending to spreading, to 7.9 cm long; spikelets 2.8-3.6 mm long, 1.5-2 mm wide; lower glumes absent; upper glumes and lower lemmas with 3 veins.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........54 Blades 2.2-18 mm wide, flat to folded; panicle branches 1-10; upper glumes 3-5-veined.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 55 Ligules to 3.3 mm long; blades to 18 mm wide; spikelets 2.9-4.1 mm long; upper glumes 5-veined; upper florets golden brown
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 55 Ligules to 2.2 mm long; blades to 8.3 mm wide; spikelets 2.1-3.1 mm long; upper glumes 3-veined; upper florets white, straminous, light yellow or golden brown.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..56 Blades 3-4 mm wide, flat; panicle branches 1-3, erect, 7-15 cm long; spikelets 2.7-3 mm long, 1.4-2 mm wide
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..56 Blades 2.2-8.3 mm wide, folded to flat; panicle branches 2-10, ascending to spreading, 0.8-10.3 cm long; spikelets 2.1-3.1 mm long, 2-2.8 mm wide.

Key to Poaceae, Key F: grasses of tribe Paniceae (also including grasses keyed as well in Keys B, C, D, and H)

Copy permalink to share | Check for keys that lead to this key

1 Inflorescences spikelike branches, the spikelets partially embedded in the rachises
1 Inflorescences panicles or spikes (if spikes, the spikelets not embedded.
..2 Spikelets (at least the terminal) subtended by 1-many stiff, terete bristles.
....3 Bristles persistent on the inflorescence, each spikelet disarticulating above the bristles
....3 Bristles falling with the spikelets at maturity (the disarticulation at the base of the fascicles)
..2 Spikelets not subtended by stiff bristles.
......4 Inflorescences of spikelike branches 1-3.7 cm long, the branch extending 2.5-4 mm beyond the attachment of the distal spikelets
......4 Inflorescences not as above.
........5 Upper florets laterally compressed
........5 Upper florets dorsally compressed.
..........6 Lower glumes or lower lemmas awned.
............ 7 Leaves > 10× as long as wide; ligules absent or of hairs
............ 7 Leaves < 8× as long as wide; ligules present, membranous or of hairs.
............ ..8 Lower glumes unawned or very shortly so; upper glumes ciliate-margined; plants erect or basally decumbent
............ ..8 Lower glumes awned; upper glumes not ciliate-margined; culms trailing; plants strongly trailing, rooting at the nodes
..........6 Lower glumes and lower lemmas unawned.
............ ....9 Lemma margins flat, hyaline; lower glumes absent or < ¼ the length of the upper glume.
............ ......10 Subterranean (cleistogamous) inflorescences present; aerial inflorescences with elongate rachises; spikelets of the aerial inflorescences often sterile; spikelets glabrous; leaves either with a white cartilaginous margin or prominently ciliate; [of the Coastal Plain]
............ ......10 Subterranean inflorescences absent; aerial inflorescences either with digitate or subdigitate branches and glabrous spikelets, or with elongate rachises and conspicuously pubescent spikelets; spikelets of the aerial inflorescences fertile; spikelets glabrous, ciliate, or pubescent; leaves various (often not as above); [collectively widespread]
............ ........11 Inflorescence a narrow panicle with the branches strongly ascending to appressed; spikelets ellipsoid to obovoid; [of Coastal Plain pinelands]
............ ........11 Inflorescence either a panicle with digitate or subdigitate clusters of spikelike branches or a broad panicle with widely divergent branches; [widespread]
............ ....9 Lemma margins not hyaline, frequently involute; lower glumes various (absent, < ¼ the length, to longer than the upper glume).
............ ..........12 Spikelets subtended by a cuplike callus
............ ..........12 Spikelets not subtended by a cuplike callus.
............ ............ 13 Leaves primarily lacking ligules (at least the upper, and often all, leaves without ligules, if vestigial ligules present, these of hairs)
............ ............ 13 Leaves with ligules, these either membranous or of hairs.
............ ............ ..14 Lower (sterile) palea indurate and expanding the spikelet at maturity, as long as the lower (sterile) lemma; lower and upper florets standing apart from one another at maturity; outer surface of the upper (fertile) palea with compound papillae
............ ............ ..14 Lower (sterile) palea membranous, not expanding the spikelet at maturity, usually shorter than lower (sterile) lemma, or absent; lower and upper florets closely appressed at maturity; outer surface of the upper (fertile) palea lacking compound papillae.
............ ............ ....15 Inflorescence of 1-sided, spikelike primary branches.
............ ............ ......16 Spikelets with lower lemmas (and lower glumes, if present) adjacent to the branch axes.
............ ............ ........17 Lower glumes present on at least most spikelets
............ ............ ......16 Spikelets with upper lemmas (and upper glumes, if present) adjacent or appressed to the branch axes.
............ ............ ..........18 Both glumes absent from all or most spikelets
............ ............ ..........18 Upper or both glumes present on all spikelets.
............ ............ ............ 19 Lower glumes usually absent; upper lemmas smooth to slightly rugose
............ ............ ............ 19 Lower glumes present; upper lemmas rugose and verrucose
............ ............ ....15 Inflorescence either paniculate with well-developed secondary branchlets or if the primary branches spikelike, then the spikelets not borne in a 1-sided arrangement on the spicate branches.
............ ............ ............ ..20 Inflorescences dense, the spikelets obscuring most of the internal branches
............ ............ ............ ..20 Inflorescences open panicles, or if narrowed, all or nearly all the panicle branches readily visible.
............ ............ ............ ....21 First glume 5-7.5 mm long, nearly as long as sterile lemma; fertile lemma 1/3 length of sterile lemma; rachilla prolonged between the florets
............ ............ ............ ....21 First glume shorter, or if this long, then at most 3/4 length of sterile lemma; fertile lemma > ½ the length of the sterile lemma; rachilla not prolonged between the florets.
............ ............ ............ ......22 Plant developing a terminal (“spring”) inflorescence usually before mid-summer, followed by lateral (“autumnal”) inflorescences from lower, mid, and/or upper nodes, these often included or hidden among the fascicles of smaller “autumnal” leaves; often developing a rosette of overwintering basal leaves
............ ............ ............ ......22 Plant developing a terminal inflorescence usually after mid-summer, the lateral inflorescences, when present, from the upper nodes, usually appearing at the same time as the terminal panicle, and not hidden by dense fascicles of smaller leaves; plants lacking a rosette of overwintering basal leaves.
............ ............ ............ ........23 Spikelets smooth, not tuberculate.
............ ............ ............ ..........24 Panicle < 2 cm wide at maturity.
............ ............ ............ ............ 25 Spikelets > 4.5 mm long; first glume > 2.4 mm long; ligule 4-6 mm long; [of coastal dunes]
............ ............ ............ ............ 25 Spikelets < 4 mm long; first glume < 2.1 mm long; ligule < 2 mm long; [not of coastal dunes].
............ ............ ............ ............ ..26 Blades involute, 1.5-4 mm wide; culms wiry
............ ............ ............ ............ ..26 Blades flat, the larger 6-20 mm wide; culms stout.
............ ............ ............ ............ ....27 Panicles constricted, 0.3-1.6 cm wide; spikelets subsessile to short-pediceled; summit of fertile palea not enclosed by fertile lemma
............ ............ ............ ............ ....27 Panicles > 1 cm wide; spikelets short to long-pediceled; summit of fertile palea enclosed by fertile lemma
............ ............ ............ ..........24 Panicle > 2 cm wide at maturity.
............ ............ ............ ............ ......28 Fertile lemmas rugose with cross-venation between the main parallel veins
............ ............ ............ ............ ........29 Lower primary panicle branches in whorls of 4-7 at the nodes, stiffly spreading, naked on the proximal ½, the axils strongly pilose; lower culm internodes appressed papillose-pubescent; first glume acuminate, ½ as long as spikelet; fertile lemma chestnut brown at maturity
............ ............ ............ ............ ........29 Plants without the above combination of characters.
............ ............ ............ ............ ..........30 Plants from a cluster of fibrous roots, without rhizomes or hard knotty crowns, annual
............ ............ ............ ............ ..........30 Plants with rhizomes or hard knotty crowns, perennial.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 31 Plants with hard crowns, lacking rhizomes; fertile lemma 1.2-1.6 mm long
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 31 Plants with rhizomes; fertile lemma 1.6-4 mm long.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..32 Rhizomes about 1 cm thick with pubescent scale-like leaves; lower portion of culm hard, nearly woody
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..32 Rhizomes less than 1 cm thick with glabrous scale-like leaves; culms not woody.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......34 Culms slightly compressed below; ligules 0.5 mm long or less; spikelet pedicels appressed, the spikelets subsecund, usually some obliquely bent above the first glume; fertile lemma 1.8-2.2 mm long
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......34 Culms terete; ligules 1-6 mm long; at least some spikelet pedicels spreading, spikelets not at all secund, essentially straight; fertile lemma 2-4 mm long

Key to Poaceae, Key H: finger grasses

Copy permalink to share | Check for keys that lead to this key

1 Spikelets 2-flowered, often dorsally compressed, falling entire at maturity (the abscission below the glumes), the upper floret usually bisexual, the lower one male or sterile; [tribe Paniceae]
..2 Lemma margins hyaline, flat; lower glumes various (absent, < ¼ the length, or longer than the upper glume)
..2 Lemma margins not hyaline, frequently involute; lower glumes absent or < ¼ the length of the upper glume.
....3 Spikelets with lower lemmas (and lower glumes, if present) adjacent to the branch axes.
......4 Lower glumes absent
......4 Lower glumes present on at least most spikelets
....3 Spikelets with upper lemmas (and upper glumes, if present) adjacent or appressed to the branch axes.
........5 Both glumes absent from all or most spikelets
........5 Upper or both glumes present on all spikelets.
..........6 Lower glumes usually absent; upper lemmas smooth to slightly rugose
..........6 Lower glumes present; upper lemmas rugose and verrucose
1 Spikelets 1-, 2-, or many-flowered, usually terete or somewhat laterally compressed, either abscising at maturing above the glumes or if 2-flowered then both florets bisexual, or the upper sterile; [tribes Cynodonteae and Zoysieae]
............ 7 Spikes normally solitary (rarely 2), divergent at the summit of the culm; second glume with a recurved spine arising from the back; fresh plants aromatic with a citrus odor; [tribe Cynodonteae; subtribe “incertae sedis”]
............ 7 Spikes normally 2 or more, alternate, digitate, subdigitate, or verticillate along the main inflorescence axis; second glume lacking a recurved spine; fresh plants not aromatic with a citrus odor.
............ ..8 Spikes arranged along the central inflorescence axis alternately, solitary at each node.
............ ....9 Spikelets with 1 bisexual floret, sometimes also with modified male, sterile, or rudimentary florets above the fertile floret.
............ ......10 Spikelets with modified male, sterile, or rudimentary florets above the fertile floret; [plants of uplands]; [tribe Cynodonteae; subtribe Boutelouinae]
............ ......10 Spikelets lacking any modified florets; [plants of wetlands, primarily saline and coastal]; [tribe Zoysieae; subtribe Sporobolinae]
............ ....9 Spikelets with 2 or more bisexual florets (sometimes also with additional reduced florets); [tribe Cynodonteae; subtribe Eleusininae].
............ ........11 Ligules 4-8 (-15) mm long, acute to attenuate, entire (lacerate only by tearing)
............ ........11 Ligules 0.3-5.4 mm long, truncate to obtuse, erose or entire.
............ ..........12 Lemmas 3-veined; ligule (0.2-) 0.5-5.5 (-7.0) mm long; apex erose or entire
............ ..........12 Lemmas 5-veined; ligule 0.8-2.2 mm long, apex erose
............ ..8 Spikes arranged along the central inflorescence axis in a digitate, subdigitate, or verticillate manner, all or most nodes with 2 or more spikes; [tribe Cynodonteae].
............ ............ 13 Spikelets with 1 fertile floret (there may also be 1 or more sterile florets); [tribe Cynodonteae; subtribe Eleusininae].
............ ............ ..14 Spikelets lacking sterile florets
............ ............ ..14 Spikelets with 1 or more sterile florets.
............ ............ ....15 Lowest lemmas awned (rarely unawned); upper glumes acute to acuminate, mucronate or short-awned
............ ............ ....15 Lowest lemmas unawned (or with an awn to 1.2 mm long); upper glumes truncate or bilobed, sometimes short-awned from between the lobes
............ ............ 13 Spikelets with 2 or more fertile florets.
............ ............ ......16 Spikes to 7 cm long, terminating in a point (the spikes acuminate); [tribe Cynodonteae; subtribe “incertae sedis”]
............ ............ ......16 Spikes to 22 cm long, terminating in a functional or rudimentary spikelet (the spikes acute to obtuse); [tribe Cynodonteae; subtribe Eleusininae].
............ ............ ........17 Lemmas pubescent, at least towards the base.
............ ............ ..........18 Lemma apices obtuse to truncate or emarginate
Cite as...