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Key to Vitaceae

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1 Leaves simple, sometimes shallowly or deeply 3-5 (-7)-lobed.
  2 Tendrils not twining, terminating in adhesive disks; [tribe Parthenocisseae]
  2 Tendrils twining, lacking adhesive disks.
    3 Petals separate at their tips, falling individually; pith white, continuous through the node; bark adherent; tendrils bifid or trifid
      4 Petals 5; stamens 5; upper leaf surfaces glabrous; [tribe Ampelopsideae]
      4 Petals 4; stamens 4; upper leaf surfaces puberulent with upright, whitish-gray hairs; [tribe Cisseae]
    3 Petals connate at their tips, falling together; pith tan to brown, interrupted by a diaphragm at each node (Vitis) or continuous through the node (Muscadinia); bark adherent (Muscadinia) or exfoliating (Vitis); tendrils bifid or trifid (Vitis) or simple (Muscadinia); [tribe Viteae].
        5 Tendrils simple; bark adherent (on all but the largest stems), with prominent lenticels; pith continuous through nodes; leaves relatively small (< 10 cm long and wide) and coarsely toothed, pentagonal in outline, but never deeply lobed
        5 Tendrils bifid to trifid; bark shedding, the lenticels inconspicuous; pith interrupted by diaphragms at nodes; leaves relatively large (well-developed leaves usually > 10 cm wide and long) and finely toothed, often deeply lobed
1 Leaves compound with either 3-5 (-7) or numerous leaflets.
          6 Leaves bipinnate to tripinnate, the leaflets on at least the better-developed leaves > 7; inflorescences axillary; [tribe Ampelopsideae]
          6 Leaves 3-7-foliolate; inflorescences axillary, leaf-opposed, or terminal.
               8 Leaves pedately 5-foliolate (the lateral 2 leaflets on either side borne on a common stalk, attached to one another above the summit of the petiole); [tribe Cayratieae]
               8 Leaves palmately 3-7-foliolate (the petiolules of all leaflets joined at the summit of the petiole).
                 9 Inflorescences leaf-opposed or apparently terminal; leaves 3-7-foliolate; [tribe Parthenocisseae].
                 9 Inflorescences axillary or leaf-opposed; leaves 3-foliolate (even the largest and best-developed).
                   10 Leaves fleshy, the blades > 1 mm thick when fresh; inflorescence axillary; [tribe Cayratieae]

Key F: woody angiosperms with alternate, compound leaves

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1 Leaves 2-foliolate or 1-foliolate (and then deeply notched).
  2 Leaves 1-foliolate (2-lobed)
  2 Leaves 2-foliolate
1 Leaves 3-, 5-, to many-foliolate.
    3 Leaves 3-foliolate.
      4 Plant a liana, climbing by twining, by tendrils, or by adventitious roots.
        5 Leaves coarsely toothed or lobed. {add Eleutherococcus trifoliatus ARALIACEAE}
          6 Leaflets obovate or broadly elliptic (broadest at or above the middle), the teeth or lobes primarily or solely in the apical half of the leaf; plant climbing by leaf-opposed tendrils
          6 Leaflets orbicular or ovate (broadest at the middle or below the middle), the teeth or lobes primarily or solely in the basal half of the leaf; plant climbing by stem twining or by dense, reddish adventitious roots.
             7 Plant climbing by the stem twining; [plant not actually woody, but so robust as to often be assumed to be so]
             7 Plant climbing by dense, reddish adventitious roots attaching the stem to tree trunks or rock outcrops
      4 Plant a shrub (sometimes scrambling or occasionally high-climbing with the support of other vegetation, but lacking the specialized climbing structures listed above).
               8 Stems armed with small prickles or stout thorns.
                 9 Stems with stout thorns at the nodes; fruit a hesperidium (orange-like, but densely hairy)
                 9 Stems with many small prickles along the internodes; fruit either a legume, or an aggregate of drupelets, or a hip.
                   10 Leaflets with 2 rounded lateral lobes near the base, otherwise entire; fruit a legume
                   10 Leaflets serrate and sometimes also cleft; fruit either an aggregate of drupelets or a hip
                     11 Leaflets serrulate, crenulate, serrate, with a few coarse and jagged teeth (spine-tipped or not), or shallowly lobed.
                       12 Leaflets serrate, with a few coarse and jagged teeth (spine-tipped or not), or shallowly lobed.
                          13 Leaflets with 2 prominent, rounded lobes near the base; fruit a legume; flowers > 3 cm long, corollas bilaterally symmetrical, red, in a terminal raceme
                          13 Leaflets serrate and sometimes also cleft, or with a few coarse and jagged teeth (spine-tipped or not); fruit either a tan or red drupe or a red berry; flowers < 1 cm across, corollas radially symmetrical, green, yellow, or white, in axillary or terminal panicles or racemes
                            14 Leaflets with a few spine-tipped teeth; fruit a red berry; [TX westwards]
                            14 Leaflets not spine-tipped; fruit a red or tan drupe; [collectively widespread]
                                16 Leaflets < 2 cm long; stems and branches dark green
                                16 Leaflets 5-15 cm long; stems and branches tan to brown
                                  17 Leaves pinnately trifoliolate, a rachis present as an extension of the petiole past the point of attachment of the 2 lateral leaflets, the terminal leaflet borne on a petiolule at the terminus of the rachis, with an obvious joint present between the rachis and petiolule
                                  17 Leaves palmately trifoliolate, the terminal leaflet typically with a longer petiolule than the lateral leaflets, but lacking a rachis (the petiolule of the terminal leaflet attached at the same point as the 2 lateral leaflets and unjointed)
    3 Leaves with 5-many leaflets (poorly developed leaves in some species with only 3 leaflets).
                                       19 Leaves palmately-pedately 5-foliolate (the lateral 2 leaflets on each side borne on a common Y-shaped stalk).
                                                            29 Plant armed with prickles on the stem, and sometimes also on the axes and main veins of the leaves
                                                                 31 Foliage blue-green; leaflets obovate, rounded or notched at the tip; flowers 4-5-merous, the sepals green, the petals yellow; fruit a capsule
                                                                                    40 Leaves with conspicuous leafy stipules, often adnate to the petiole; plant a liana or small to medium shrub; leaves serrate, often sharply and prominently so; leaves not strongly aromatic when fresh, lacking pellucid punctate glands on the surface
                                                                                    40 Leaves lacking leafy stipules; plant a tree or tall shrub; leaves entire or obscurely crenate or serrate; plant a tree or tall shrub; leaves either strongly aromatic when fresh, with conspicuous pellucid punctate glands or not aromatic and not pellucid-punctate.
                                                                                                          50 Leaflets with obscure crenations, not as below nor bearing glands; leaf rachis narrowly to conspicuously winged, especially towards the tip; fruit a drupe; plant a shrub or small tree
                                                                                                          50 Leaflets (especially the basal and on the basalscopic side) with 1-5 large rounded teeth, each bearing a prominent dark green gland; leaf rachis not winged; fruit a schizocarp, with 2-5 samaroid mericarps; plant a medium to large tree
                                                                                                                53 Plant a tree, freely branched; rhizome inner bark not brightly colored; flowers unisexual, the male flowers in catkins, the female flowers solitary or few in a spike, the perianth greenish or tan and inconspicuous; fruit a nut covered by a dehiscent or indehiscent involucre
                                                                                                                53 Plant a short shrub, < 1 m tall, little branched; rhizome inner bark of fresh plants bright yellow; flowers bisexual, petals absent, the 5 petaloid sepals maroon; inflorescence a drooping panicle from the base of the new year’s growth; fruit an aggregate of follicles
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