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Keyed in multiple places:

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Key to Lathyrus

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1 Leaflets > 2, generally 4-12; [native species of various habitats].
  2 Foliaceous stipules laterally symmetrical, with 2 approximately equal basal lobes; leaves somewhat fleshy; [plants of ocean beaches and dunes].
    3 lower leaflet surface pubescent (notably on new growth)
  2 Foliaceous stipules asymmetrical, oblique at the base, the basal lobe well-developed only on one side.
      4 Leaflets (8-) 10-14 per leaf, generally irregular arrayed; [plants of dry to mesic forests]
        5 Calyx sparsely to densely pubescent; leaves and stems sparsely to densely pubescent; [mainly Great Lakes and n. Midwest, south to the norther edges of our region]
          6 Lateral lobes of the calyx lanceolate, longer than the calyx tube; [west of the Mississippi River, mainly Interior Highlands, but also upper West Gulf Coastal Plain]
          6 Lateral lobes of the calyx linear-triangular, equal to or shorter than the calyx tube; [mainly Appalachian and Piedmont, NJ and PA south to GA and AL]
      4 Leaflets (4-) 6-10 per leaf, generally paired; [plants of various dry or wet habitats].
             7 Racemes with 5-15 (-20) flowers; corollas white to cream, 10-14 mm long
             7 Racemes with 2-6 (-9) flowers; corollas pink to purple, 15-28 mm long.
               8 Corollas 20-28 mm long; leaflets (4-) 6-10 per leaf; [Great Plainsian, east to c. OK]
               8 Corollas 15-20 mm long; leaflets (4-) 6 per leaf; [northern, south to NC, GA, AL, MO, NE]
1 Leaflets 0-2; [exotic species, except L. pusillus].
                   10 Stems not winged or flanged; corollas 10-15 mm long; flowers 3-10 per inflorescence.
                   10 Stems winged; corollas 6-30 mm long; flowers 1-15 per inflorescence.
                       12 Stems with wings 0-1 (-2) mm wide; corolla 6-14 mm long; flowers 1-3 (-4) per raceme.
                          13 Legume (in fruit) and ovary (in flower) hirsute with swollen-based hairs; corolla 9-14 mm long
                       12 Stems with wings 1-3 mm wide; corolla 13-30 mm long; flowers 2-12 per raceme.
                            14 Stems hirsute with swollen-based hairs; plant an annual; flowers 2-4 per raceme
                            14 Stems glabrate; plant a perennial; flowers (3-) 4-12 per raceme.

Key to Fabaceae, Key I: herbaceous legumes with all leaves unifoliolate or leaflets absent [subfamily Faboideae]

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1 Tendrils present on plant; leaves modified into tendrils (leaflike structures present clearly interpretable as stipules); [tribe Fabeae].
  2 Legume 4-7 mm wide; corolla 10-13 mm long
  2 Legume 12-20 mm wide; corolla 18-25 mm long
1 Tendrils absent; leaves or stipules present on plant and interpretable as leaves with 1 leaflet.
    3 Leaflet blades roundish, 0.6-1.5× as long as wide.
      4 Leaves with a well-developed petiole, > 0.5 cm long.
        5 Leaflet margins dentate; corollas white to pink; [tribe Psoraleeae]
        5 Leaflet margins entire; corollas yellow; [tribe Phaseoleae]
      4 Leaves sessile, subsessile, or perfoliate.
          6 Corolla bright or creamy yellow; stamens separate; leaves all 1-foliolate; leaflet blades perfoliate or sessile; [tribe Thermopsideae]
          6 Corolla violet to blue (drying pale); stamens diadelphous; leaves 1-foliolate and with some leaves 3-foliolate or 2-foliolate; leaflet blades cuneate, subsessile; [tribe Psoraleeae]
    3 Leaflet blades elongate, 1.5-15× as long as wide.
             7 Leaves basally disposed.
               8 Leaflet blades elliptic, widest near the midpoint of the blade; flowers pink, rose, or purplish; legume straight; [native of the Coastal Plain, se. NC south to s. FL, west to e. LA]; [tribe Genisteae]
               8 Leaflet blades oblanceolate, widest well past the midpoint of the blade; flowers yellow; legume coiled; [rare waif]; [tribe Loteae]
             7 Leaves all or primarily cauline.
                 9 Leaves long-petioled, the petiole > 2 cm long.
                   10 Petiole winged its entire length; leaflet blade 2-4× as long as wide, sagittate at the base; foliage not glandular; [tribe Phaseoleae]
                   10 Petiole not winged; leaflet blade 8-15× as long as wide, cuneate at the base; foliage glandular-punctate; [tribe Psoraleeae]
                 9 Leaves sessile, subsessile, or short-petiolate, the petiole < 1.5 cm long.
                     11 Stamens monadelphous; corolla yellow, 8-30 mm long; [tribe Crotalarieae]
                     11 Stamens diadelphous; corolla purple, lavender, or cream, 5-15 mm long.
                       12 Corolla 11-15 mm long, purple; [se. and s. TX]; [tribe Diocleae]
                       12 Corolla 5-7 mm long, lavender or cream; [widespread in our area]
                          13 Flowers solitary in leaf axils; [tribe Loteae]
                          13 Flowers in racemose inflorescences; [tribe Desmodieae]
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