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Key F: woody angiosperms with alternate, compound leaves

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1 Leaves 2-foliolate or 1-foliolate (and then deeply notched).
..2 Leaves 1-foliolate (2-lobed)
..2 Leaves 2-foliolate
1 Leaves 3-, 5-, to many-foliolate.
....3 Leaves 3-foliolate.
......4 Plant a liana, climbing by twining, by tendrils, or by adventitious roots.
........5 Leaves untoothed and unlobed
........5 Leaves coarsely toothed or lobed. {add Eleutherococcus trifoliatus ARALIACEAE}
..........6 Leaflets obovate or broadly elliptic (broadest at or above the middle), the teeth or lobes primarily or solely in the apical half of the leaf; plant climbing by leaf-opposed tendrils
..........6 Leaflets orbicular or ovate (broadest at the middle or below the middle), the teeth or lobes primarily or solely in the basal half of the leaf; plant climbing by stem twining or by dense, reddish adventitious roots.
............ 7 Plant climbing by the stem twining; [plant not actually woody, but so robust as to often be assumed to be so]
............ 7 Plant climbing by dense, reddish adventitious roots attaching the stem to tree trunks or rock outcrops
......4 Plant a shrub (sometimes scrambling or occasionally high-climbing with the support of other vegetation, but lacking the specialized climbing structures listed above).
............ ..8 Stems armed with small prickles or stout thorns.
............ ....9 Stems with stout thorns at the nodes; fruit a hesperidium (orange-like, but densely hairy)
............ ....9 Stems with many small prickles along the internodes; fruit either a legume, or an aggregate of drupelets, or a hip.
............ ......10 Leaflets with 2 rounded lateral lobes near the base, otherwise entire; fruit a legume
............ ......10 Leaflets serrate and sometimes also cleft; fruit either an aggregate of drupelets or a hip
............ ........11 Leaflets serrulate, crenulate, serrate, with a few coarse and jagged teeth (spine-tipped or not), or shallowly lobed.
............ ..........12 Leaflets serrate, with a few coarse and jagged teeth (spine-tipped or not), or shallowly lobed.
............ ............ 13 Leaflets with 2 prominent, rounded lobes near the base; fruit a legume; flowers > 3 cm long, corollas bilaterally symmetrical, red, in a terminal raceme
............ ............ 13 Leaflets serrate and sometimes also cleft, or with a few coarse and jagged teeth (spine-tipped or not); fruit either a tan or red drupe or a red berry; flowers < 1 cm across, corollas radially symmetrical, green, yellow, or white, in axillary or terminal panicles or racemes
............ ............ ..14 Leaflets with a few spine-tipped teeth; fruit a red berry; [TX westwards]
............ ............ ..14 Leaflets not spine-tipped; fruit a red or tan drupe; [collectively widespread]
............ ............ ......16 Leaflets < 2 cm long; stems and branches dark green
............ ............ ......16 Leaflets 5-15 cm long; stems and branches tan to brown
............ ............ ........17 Leaves pinnately trifoliolate, a rachis present as an extension of the petiole past the point of attachment of the 2 lateral leaflets, the terminal leaflet borne on a petiolule at the terminus of the rachis, with an obvious joint present between the rachis and petiolule
............ ............ ........17 Leaves palmately trifoliolate, the terminal leaflet typically with a longer petiolule than the lateral leaflets, but lacking a rachis (the petiolule of the terminal leaflet attached at the same point as the 2 lateral leaflets and unjointed)
....3 Leaves with 5-many leaflets (poorly developed leaves in some species with only 3 leaflets).
............ ............ ............ 19 Leaves palmately-pedately 5-foliolate (the lateral 2 leaflets on each side borne on a common Y-shaped stalk).
............ ............ ............ 19 Leaves palmately compound (all the leaflets attached at a single point).
............ ............ ............ ........23 Stems armed with prickles scattered in the internodes
............ ............ ..........18 Leaves pinnately, bipinnately, or complexly compound.
............ ............ ............ ............ 25 Leaves at least in part pinnate-pinnatifid, 2-pinnate, or otherwise more complexly compound than 1-pinnate.
............ ............ ............ ............ ....27 Leaves pinnate-pinnatifid, with 7-19 leaflets, each leaflet pinnatifid into narrowly lanceolate lobes; {upper leaflet surface dark green, lower surface silvery with gray sericeous pubescence}
............ ............ ............ ............ ........29 Plant armed with prickles on the stem, and sometimes also on the axes and main veins of the leaves
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 31 Foliage green; leaflets ovate, acute at the tip; flowers 3-merous, the tepals white or cream; fruit a red berry
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 31 Foliage blue-green; leaflets obovate, rounded or notched at the tip; flowers 4-5-merous, the sepals green, the petals yellow; fruit a capsule
............ ............ ............ ............ ..........30 Plant a tree, > 3 m tall when flowering and fruiting.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......34 Leaves even-pinnately compound (generally with 2 leaflets at the apex of the rachis, these obviously and symmetrically paired).
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........35 Leaflets rounded to obtuse at the apex (or acute to acuminate in Gymnocladus); fruit a legume; inflorescence various, but not as below
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........35 Leaflets acuminate at the apex; fruit a drupe or capsule; inflorescence a panicle with many, small, radially symmetrical flowers.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....39 Stems armed with prickles or stipular or nodal spines; leaves often also with prickles.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......40 Leaves with conspicuous leafy stipules, often adnate to the petiole; plant a liana or small to medium shrub; leaves serrate, often sharply and prominently so; leaves not strongly aromatic when fresh, lacking pellucid punctate glands on the surface
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......40 Leaves lacking leafy stipules; plant a tree or tall shrub; leaves entire or obscurely crenate or serrate; plant a tree or tall shrub; leaves either strongly aromatic when fresh, with conspicuous pellucid punctate glands or not aromatic and not pellucid-punctate.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........41 Leaves not aromatic when fresh, lacking pellucid punctate glands; leaves never with prickles on the rachis; leaflet apices rounded
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........41 Leaves strongly aromatic when fresh, with conspicuous pellucid punctate glands; leaves often with prickles on the rachis; leaflet apices usually acuminate
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....39 Stems unarmed (leaflets with spinose margins in some species, or the stem with dense hispid hairs).
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....45 Leaves with stipules; flowers bilaterally symmetrical, papilionaceous, white, cream, or pink; stamens 10; fruit a legume; [collectively widespread in our area]
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....45 Leaves without stipules; flowers radially symmetrical, whitish; stamens 5 or 10; fruit a single-seeded drupe; [FL peninsula]
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........47 Flowers bilaterally symmetrical, papilionaceous (reduced in Amorpha to a single petal); stamens 10; fruit a legume; leaves with stipules.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........47 Flowers radially symmetrical, stamens 4-5; fruit either a drupe (Anacardiaceae), or a 1-3-seeded berry or a samara (Picramniaceae); leaves without stipules.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..50 Leaflets with obscure crenations, not as below nor bearing glands; leaf rachis narrowly to conspicuously winged, especially towards the tip; fruit a drupe; plant a shrub or small tree
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..50 Leaflets (especially the basal and on the basalscopic side) with 1-5 large rounded teeth, each bearing a prominent dark green gland; leaf rachis not winged; fruit a schizocarp, with 2-5 samaroid mericarps; plant a medium to large tree
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........53 Plant a tree, freely branched; rhizome inner bark not brightly colored; flowers unisexual, the male flowers in catkins, the female flowers solitary or few in a spike, the perianth greenish or tan and inconspicuous; fruit a nut covered by a dehiscent or indehiscent involucre
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........53 Plant a short shrub, < 1 m tall, little branched; rhizome inner bark of fresh plants bright yellow; flowers bisexual, petals absent, the 5 petaloid sepals maroon; inflorescence a drooping panicle from the base of the new year’s growth; fruit an aggregate of follicles

Key to Fabaceae, Key A: woody legumes with all leaves 1-, 2-, or 3-foliolate, or reduced to flattened phyllodia or phyllodial spines

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1 Stamens numerous; inflorescences of many flowers arranged in a closely packed sphere or cylinder; leaves replaced by phyllodes, these leathery in texture and often crescent-shaped; [Mimosoid clade]
1 Stamens 10 (or fewer); inflorescences various, the flowers larger and more diffuse; leaves 1-, 2-, or 3-foliolate, or reduced to phyllodial spines; [subfamily Faboideae or Cercidioideae]
..2 Leaves 1- or 2-foliolate and > 2 cm wide; trees, shrubs, or lianas.
....3 Seeds 1-2 (-4) per fruit; corolla pale yellow, pale pink, or white; longest petals 7-10 mm long; [subfamily Faboideae]
....3 Seeds > 5 per fruit; corolla purplish-pink, bright pink, or white; longest petals 10-100 mm long [subfamily Cercidioideae]
......4 Leaves with a rounded to apiculate apex; flowers strongly bilaterally symmetrical, “pseudopapilionoid”; petals 0.8-1.5 cm long; legumes 4-10 cm long; [natives and exotics, and widely cultivated]
......4 Leaves either unifoliolate with a deeply notched apex or 2-foliolate; flowers slightly bilaterally symmetrical; petals 1.5-8 (-10) cm long; legumes 7-30 cm long; [exotics, of FL peninsula].
........5 Shrub or tree; petals 3-8 (-10) cm long
........5 Liana (climbing by twining and by tendrils); petals 1.5-2.0 cm long
..2 Leaves 3-foliolate, or reduced to phyllodial spines, or 1-foliolate (but then < 2 cm wide); shrubs or woody vines (rarely trees in Erythrina); [subfamily Faboideae].
..........6 Woody vine (Pueraria, a robust herbaceous vine, is also keyed here as a failsafe).
............ 7 Leaves glandular beneath; terminal leaflets 1.3-4 cm long
............ 7 Leaves eglandular beneath; terminal leaflets 5-20 cm long.
............ ..8 Terminal leaflet 1.5-2.5× as long as wide; corolla yellow; legume 4-6 cm wide; seeds 2-3 cm wide
............ ..8 Terminal leaflet 0.8-1.3× as long as wide; legume 0.8-1.3 cm wide; seeds < 1 cm wide; corolla purplish or red.
............ ....9 Calyx 4.5-6 mm long; leaflets unlobed; [tribe Phaseoleae]
............ ....9 Calyx 10-12 mm long; leaflets generally lobed; [tribe Phaseoleae]
..........6 Shrub or tree.
............ ......10 Shrub with angled or flanged green twigs; leaves palmately trifoliolate, unifoliolate, or reduced to spine-tipped phyllodes; [introduced]; [tribe Genisteae].
............ ........11 Flowers red-purple; calyx 2-3 mm long; [tribe Galegeae]
............ ........11 Flowers bright yellow; calyx 3-15 mm long; [tribe Genisteae]
............ ..........12 Leaves all reduced to phyllodial spines; flowers axillary; calyx 10-15 mm long
............ ..........12 Leaves with normal lamina, either 1-foliolate or 3-foliolate; flowers in terminal racemes; calyx 3-6 mm long.
............ ............ 13 Leaves 3-foliolate lower on the stem, often 1-foliolate above; corolla 15-22 mm long
............ ............ 13 Leaves 1-foliolate throughout; corolla either 10-14 mm or 20-25 mm long
............ ............ ..14 Corolla 10-14 mm long; fruits 1.5-3 cm long
............ ............ ..14 Corolla 20-25 mm long; fruits 5-10 cm long
............ ......10 Shrub or tree with twigs various, but not conspicuously green or flanged; leaves pinnately trifoliolate or unifoliolate.
............ ............ ....15 Leaflet margins toothed; [rare waif]; [tribe Trifolieae]
............ ............ ....15 Leaflet margins entire; [collectively common and widespread].
............ ............ ........17 Corolla 15-50 mm long, yellow or scarlet; legume with several seeds; leaflets lobed or not; [tribe Phaseoleae]
............ ............ ..........18 Corolla 15-21 mm long, yellow; leaflets unlobed; leaflets densely yellow glandular-punctate
............ ............ ..........18 Corolla 30-50 mm long, scarlet; leaflets lobed or not; leaflets eglandular
............ ............ ........17 Corolla 8-15 mm long, purplish, pink, or white; legume 1-seeded; leaflets not lobed.

Key to Fabaceae, Key K: herbaceous legumes with pinnately trifoliolate leaves [subfamily Faboideae]

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1 Leaflets denticulate (sometimes inconspicuously so); [tribe Trifolieae].
..2 Inflorescences elongate racemes with an axis 5-15 cm long, the flowers well-spaced along the axis, the overall inflorescence much longer than its diameter
..2 Inflorescences umbellate or headlike clusters or short racemes with an axis < 2 cm long, the flowers closely clustered, the overall inflorescence little (if at all) longer than its diameter.
....3 Legumes spirally coiled or curved, often tuberculate or prickly; stems 4-angled towards the tip
....3 Legumes straight or nearly so, never tuberculate or prickly; stems terete or flattened (2-angled) towards the tip
1 Leaflets entire (and sometimes also with 1 or 2 broad lobes), or with scattered, irregular large teeth (Pachyrhizus erosus).
......4 Main stems erect or ascending, not trailing, twining, or otherwise vine-like.
........5 Flowers not papilionaceous (the wings and keel epistemonous, arising terminally or laterally from the stamen tube), barely bilaterally symmetrical; stamens 5, monadelphous; [tribe Amorpheae]
..........6 Plants with separate leafy and flowering stems (the flowering stems naked or nearly so of leaves).
............ 7 Standard bright red, remaining folded, 30-50 mm long; leaves hastately lobed; fruit a torulose legume, 6-20 cm long, the seeds red; [tribe Phaseoleae]
............ 7 Standard white or pink, expanded, 4-8 mm long; leaves not hastate; fruit a flattened loment, < 5 cm long, the seeds drab; [tribe Desmodieae]
..........6 Plants bearing leaves and flowers on the same stems.
............ ..8 Leaves, stems, and/or calyces glandular-punctate.
............ ....9 Corollas pink or lavender/purplish; leaflets estipellate; fruit 1-seeded, indehiscent; [tribe Psoraleae]
............ ....9 Corollas yellow; leaflets stipellate; fruit 2-many-seeded, dehiscent; [tribe Phaseoleae, subtribe Cajaninae]
............ ..8 Leaves, stems, and calyces lacking punctate glands.
............ ......10 Leaflet blades large, at least the largest terminal leaflets on a plant > 5 cm long.
............ ........11 Stipels absent on the petiolules of mature leaflets; stamens monadelphous.
............ ..........12 Fruit a legume (not segmented into 1-seed dispersal units), hairy but the hairs not hooked; [plants cultivated as garden plants, rare as waifs]
............ ..........12 Fruit a loment (separating into single-seeded segments), uncinulate (with hooked hairs, the fruits attaching to hairs or clothes as 'stick-tights'); [plants widespread, common]
............ ............ 13 Fruit a loment (separating into single-seeded segments), uncinulate (with hooked hairs, the fruits attaching to hairs or clothes as 'stick-tights'); [plants widespread, common]
............ ............ 13 Fruit a legume (not segmented into 1-seed dispersal units), hairy but the hairs not hooked; [plants cultivated as crops or garden plants, rare as waifs]
............ ............ ..14 sKeel of corolla not coiled; stipules inconspicuous; [soy beans]
............ ............ ..14 Keel of corolla coiled 1-3 turns; stipules conspicuous, persistent, striate; [bush green beans or lima beans]
............ ......10 Leaflet blades smaller, all on a plant < 5 cm long.
............ ............ ......16 Fruit a loment (separating into single-seeded segments), uncinulate (with hooked hairs, the fruits attaching to hairs or clothes as 'stick-tights')
............ ............ ......16 Fruit a several- to many-seeded legume, glabrous to hairy (but not uncinulate)
............ ............ ....15 Stipels absent on the petiolules of mature leaflets.
............ ............ ........17 Fruits dehiscent, a legume with 2 or more seeds.
............ ............ ..........18 Terminal leaflet very similar in size as the 2 lateral leaflets; banner petal prominently striate-veined
............ ............ ..........18 Terminal leaflet 2× or more as long as the 2 lateral leaflets; banner petal evenly colored
............ ............ ........17 Fruits indehiscent: either 1-seeded, or a loment with 2 or more one-seeded (indehiscent) segments.
............ ............ ............ 19 Petioles fused most of length with amplexicaul stipules, the leaves thus appearing sessile or nearly so; corollas lemon to orangy yellow; flowers subsessile; fruit a loment of 2 segments, the terminal segment fertile, the lower segment either sterile or fertile
............ ............ ............ 19 Petioles free from stipules, leaves evidently petiolate; corollas white to pink; flowers pedicellate; fruit either 1-seeded, or a loment normally with 3+ segments
............ ............ ............ ..20 Fruit a loment, with 1-3 segments; terminal leaflets 3-10 cm long, 1-1.5× as long as wide; stamens monadelphous
............ ............ ............ ..20 Fruit 1-seeded; terminal leaflets 1-5 cm long, 1.2-8× as long as wide; stamens diadelphous (9 and 1)
......4 Main stems trailing, twining, creeping, or climbing or sprawling over other vegetation.
............ ............ ............ ....21 Leaves, stems, and/or calyces glandular-punctate; corollas yellow.
............ ............ ............ ....21 Leaves, stems, and calyces lacking punctate glands; corollas yellow, pink, purplish, white, red, blue.
............ ............ ............ ......22 Leaflet blades smaller, all on a plant < 5 cm long.
............ ............ ............ ........23 Stipels absent on the petiolules of mature leaflets.
............ ............ ............ ..........24 Fruit a loment of 2 segments, the terminal segment fertile, the lower segment either sterile or fertile; corollas lemon to orangy yellow
............ ............ ............ ..........24 Fruit 1-seeded; corollas pink-purplish to white, or bronze to brick-red.
............ ............ ............ ............ ..26 Fruit a loment (separating into single-seeded segments), uncinulate (with hooked hairs, the fruits attaching to hairs or clothes as 'stick-tights').
............ ............ ............ ............ ....27 Flowers in axillary or terminal racemes; leaflets rotund, broadly ovate, broadly elliptic, or narrowly elliptic, the larger > 1 cm long.
............ ............ ............ ............ ....27 Flowers in axillary clusters; leaflets broadly obovate, 0.5-1 cm long
............ ............ ............ ............ ..26 Fruit a legume, dehiscent (at least tardily), unsegmented, and with 2+ seeds.
............ ............ ............ ............ ......28 Flowers resupinate (the pedicel twisted 180 degrees), the banner 2.5-5.5 cm long and positioned lowermost.
............ ............ ............ ............ ........29 Calyx lobes equal to or longer than the calyx tube; fruits 3-5 mm wide
............ ............ ............ ............ ......28 Flowers not resupinate, the banner 0.7-2.5 cm long and positioned uppermost.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 31 Keel petal and the included style straight to gently upcurved; stems very slender, < 0.75 mm in diameter
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 31 Keel petal and the included style either strongly curved upwards 90-180 degrees, or even more extensively coiled (asymmetrically and spirally) in towards the flower center; stems slender to thicker, > 0.75 mm in diameter.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..32 Keel petal and the included style strongly curved upwards 90-180 degrees; corollas yellow or pink to lavender (or whitish).
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....33 Corollas pink to lavender (or whitish); corolla keel usually somewhat twisted, asymmetrical; [widespread in our region]
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....33 Corollas yellow; corolla keel symmetrical; [mainly outer Coastal Plain]
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..32 Keel petal and the included style extensively coiled > 180 degrees (asymmetrically and spirally) in towards the flower center; corollas pink, purple, maroon, purple-black (or whitish).
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......34 Peduncles long, the flowers borne in clusters on a raceme axis shorter than the peduncle; plants glabrate to villous, the hairs not hooked
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......34 Peduncles short, the flowers scattered along a (sometimes branched) raceme axis, the raceme axis about as long as or longer than the peduncle; plants uncinulate pubescent (use 20× magnification, or touch the plant for the 'tacky' feel)
............ ............ ............ ......22 Leaflet blades large, at least the largest terminal leaflets on a plant > 5 cm long.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........36 Stamens monadelphous; robust herbaceous vine with stems to 30 m long; flowers purple, when fresh smelling like artificial grape flavoring.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........36 Stamens diadelphous (9 and 1); herbaceous vines with stems usually < 5 m long; flowers various in color, not 'grapy' in odor.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 37 Flowers resupinate (the pedicel twisted 180 degrees), the banner (standard) petal lowermost; banner (standard) 25-50 mm long, much larger than the other petals.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 37 Flowers not resupinate, the banner (standard) uppermost; banner (standard) < 25 mm long, or if up to 30 mm then not much longer than the other petals.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....39 Fruit a loment (separating into single-seeded segments), uncinulate (with hooked hairs, the fruits attaching to hairs or clothes as 'stick-tights')
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....39 Fruit a several- to many-seeded legume, glabrous to hairy (but not uncinulate).
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........42 Leaflets with entire margins (sometimes with 1-2 rounded lobes); roots slender
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....45 Leaflets (2-) 4-8 cm long, 0.8-1.5 cm wide, 5-6× as long as wide; leaflet apices acute to obtuse; fruits not flanged or winged
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....45 Leaflets 6-14 cm long, 4-10 cm wide, 1-1.3× as long as wide; leaflet apices strongly acuminate; fruits with a flange or wing along the ventral suture
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........48 Keel petal and the included style straight to gently upcurved; stems very slender, < 0.75 mm in diameter
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........48 Keel petal and the included style strongly curved upwards 90-180 degrees; stems slender to thicker, > 0.75 mm in diameter
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......40 Keel petal and the included style either strongly curved upwards 90-180 degrees, or even more extensively coiled (asymmetrically and spirally) in towards the flower center; style or stigma pubescent.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 49 Plants uncinulate pubescent (use 20× magnification, or touch the plant for the 'tacky' feel)
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..50 Keel petal and the included style even more extensively coiled (asymmetrically and spirally) in towards the flower center.
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