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Key to Senna

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1 Herbs, 0.5-22 dm tall.
..2 Leaves with 1 pair of leaflets; gland positioned at the single pair of leaflets; [TX and OK].
....3 Leaflets (1.3-) 1.4-3.7 (-4.1)× as long as wide; plants 1-3.5 dm tall; foliage cinereous, gray-green; [section Chamaefistula, series Brachycarpae].
......4 Leaflets 2-3.7 (-4.1)× as long as wide; hairs of the upper stem mostly 0.2-0.7 mm long
......4 Leaflets (1.3-) 1.4-1.8× as long as wide; hairs of the upper stem mostly 1-3 mm long; style 1-2 mm long, stout
....3 Leaflets (3.6-) 4-10× as long as wide; plants 0.4-7 dm tall; foliage glabrate to cinereous, green.
........5 pod 10-15 mm long; plants 0.4-1.2 (-1.7) dm tall; [section Chamaefistula, section Tharpia]
........5 pod (20-) 23-32 (-35) mm long; plants (1.5-) 2-7 dm tall; [section Chamaefistula, section Brachycarpae]
..2 Leaves with 3-14 pairs of leaflets; gland(s) either 0, or present and positioned variously (see below); [collectively widespread].
..........6 Racemes spike-like, 3-6 (-10) dm long; legume 4-winged; glands 0; leaves with (6-) 7-14 pairs of leaflets; [section Senna, series Pictae]
..........6 Racemes not spike-like, < 3 dm long; legume not winged; glands present on petiole or rachis of leaves; leaves with (3-) 4-9 (-10) pairs of leaflets.
............ 7 Leaves with 3 pairs of leaflets; leaflets obovate, 1.6-2.5× as long as wide, the widest point past the midpoint, the apex broadly rounded to obtuse; gland(s) positioned at the lowest pair of leaflets and sometimes also at the 2nd pair; [section Chamaefistula, section Trigonelloideae]
............ 7 Leaves with (3-) 4-9 (-10) pairs of leaflets; leaflets ovate, lanceolate, or elliptic, 1.9-7× as long as wide, the widest below or near the midpoint, the apex acuminate, acute, or obtuse; gland(s) positioned variously (see below).
............ ..8 Glands on the rachis between each pair of leaflets except the uppermost; plants silvery-gray pubescent; [TX]; [section Chamaefistula, section Brachycarpae]
............ ..8 Glands on the petiole below the 1st pair of leaflets (rarely at the summit of the petiole, in association with the 1st pair of leaflets); plants green, glabrous or relatively inconspicuously hairy; [collectively widespread].
image of plant
Show caption*© Mary Keim, some rights reserved (CC BY-NC-SA)
............ ....9 Gland cylindrical or conical; [section Chamaefistula, series Basiglandulosae]
............ ....9 Gland spheroidal.
............ ......10 Leaflets 1.5-3.0 cm wide, in 3-6 pairs; racemes with 1-5 flowers; [section Chamaefistula, series Basiglandulosae]
............ ......10 Leaflets 0.7-2.0 cm wide, in 6-10 pairs; racemes with 5-10 (-25) flowers; [section Chamaefistula, series Temperatae].
............ ........11 Legume 5.5-8 mm wide, with broad, nearly square segments, usually pilose initially, the hairs up to 0.8-2 mm long (sometimes glabrate); ovary lanate with hairs to 1 mm long; ovules 10-15 (-18); petiolar gland broadest above the middle
............ ........11 Legume 8-11 mm wide, with narrow segments (much shorter than broad), glabrous (or with a few hairs, these < 0.6 mm long); ovary strigulose with hairs to 0.5 mm long; ovules 20-25 (-30); petiolar gland usually broadest at or below the middle.
............ ..........12 Leaflets acute to obtuse, 2-3× as long as wide, symmetrical or the terminal pair slightly falcate; [widespread in our area, south to Panhandle FL]
............ ..........12 Leaflets acuminate, 3-7× as long as wide, at least the upper strongly falcate; [of peninsular FL]
1 Shrubs and trees, 20-200 dm tall.
............ ............ 13 Leaves with 5-16 (-18) pairs of leaflets.
............ ............ ..14 Glands between the 1st pair of leaflets, and also sometimes between the 2nd to 3rd pairs.
............ ............ ....15 Fertile stamens 7; flowers asymmetrical; [section Peiranisia, series Interglandulosae]
............ ............ ....15 Fertile stamens 10; flowers bilaterally symmetrical; [section Psilorhegma]
............ ............ ......16 Flowers asymmetrical; leaflets 3-4× as long as wide; [section Peiranisia, series Excelsae]
............ ............ ......16 Flowers bilaterally symmetrical; leaflets 1.5-3.5 (-4)× as long as wide.
............ ............ ........17 Racemes spike-like, 3-6 (-10) dm long; fruit quadrangular in ×-section, 4-winged; [section Senna, series Pictae]
............ ............ ........17 Racemes not spike-like, < 3 dm long; fruit flat or turgid, not winged.
............ ............ ..........18 Shrub; fruit 7-12 cm long, 1.7-2.3 cm wide; inflorescence racemose, cylindroid, the unopened flowers covered by broad brownish-black bracts; [section Senna, series Pictae]
............ ............ ..........18 Tree; fruit (15) 20-30 cm long, 1.2-1.6 cm wide; inflorescence paniculate, initially corymbiform, the unopened flowers with small, inconspicuous bracts; [section Chamaefistula, series Floridae]
............ ............ 13 Leaves with (1-) 2-7 pairs of leaflets.
............ ............ ............ 19 Glands 0; tree; fruits 22-35 cm long; [section Peiranisia, series Isandrae]
............ ............ ............ 19 Glands present, at least between the 1st pair of leaflets; shrub to tree; fruits 6-18 cm long.
............ ............ ............ ..20 Leaflets acuminate, the terminal pair 4.5-10.5 cm long; glands between all leaflet pairs except the terminal; [section Chamaefistula, series Colutoideae]
............ ............ ............ ..20 Leaflets acute, obtuse, or rounded, the terminal pair 2.2-5.4 cm long; glands between the 1st pair (sometimes also the 2nd or rarely the 3rd pair as well).
............ ............ ............ ....21 Fruits strongly flattened, the valves dehiscing and becoming stiffly papery in texture; seeds 2-8-4.5 mm long, 1.7-2.5 (-2.7) wide; [native of pine rocklands, dunes, etc. in s. FL]; [section Chamaefistula, section Basiglandulosae]
............ ............ ............ ....21 Fruits cylindrical (reminiscent of a green bean), the valves dehiscing only tardily, remaining tough and thick in texture; seeds 3.9-6.0 (-6.6 mm long, (2.8-) 2.9-4.3 mm wide; [horticultural non-natives, persistent, weakly establishing near plantings, or naturalizing]; [section Chamaefistula, series Colutoideae]
............ ............ ............ ......22 Leaflets acute, to obtuse or broadly rounded; larger leaflets (3.3) 3.5-5.6 (6.5)× as long as wide; fruits 7-12 cm long.
............ ............ ............ ......22 Leaflets rounded or retuse at apex (sometimes with a mucro); larger leaflets 1.25-3.5 (-3.9)× as long as wide; fruits 8-18 cm long.
............ ............ ............ ........23 Long (abaxial) filaments (6.5-) 7-11.5 mm long; style 4.5-6.5 (-7) mm
............ ............ ............ ........23 Long (abaxial) filaments 13-18.5 mm long; style 5-8 mm long
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