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Key to Quercus, Key D: Leaves with lobes or teeth bristle-tipped (Red Oaks)

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1 Leaves shallowly 3-lobed near the broad apex (some leaves of sprout or juvenile shoots may be more lobed); [section Lobatae; subsection Phellos].
..2 Leaf blades 5-15 cm long; lower leaf surfaces glabrous, except for tufts of hairs in the vein axils (or pubescent across the surface in Q. arkansana].
....3 Leaves with broadly cuneate to rounded leaf bases, the blades 5-15 cm long; lower leaf surfaces generally pubescent across the surface, and also with tufts in the axils; [of sw. GA westward]
....3 Leaves with cuneate bases, the blades 5-10 (-15) cm long; lower leaf surfaces glabrous, except for tufts of hairs in the vein axils; [widespread in our area]
..2 Leaf blades 10-30 cm long; lower leaf surfaces pubescent across the surface (and often also with denser tufts of hairs in the vein axils).
......4 Petioles short and stout, 5-15 mm long; lower leaf surfaces thinly to densely pubescent with a mixture of tawny or orange glandlike hairs and stellate hairs whose structure is easily visible at 10× magnification
........5 Leaves small, thinner, glabrate or grayish-pubescent beneath, with conspicuous tufts of yellowish tomentum in the axils of the principal veins beneath; buds small, 3-5 mm long, ovate-lanceolate, grayish-pubescent; cups 10-15 mm wide, rounded or flattened at the base, with small grayish brown or red-brown scales closely appressed in a thin edge, covering less than one-third of the acorns; acorns 15-18 mm long, glabrous, or nearly so, sometimes faintly striated
........5 Leaves usually large, thick, leathery, usually rusty-tomentose on the under surface, less conspicuously tufted with tomentum in the axils of the three primary veins beneath; buds large, 6-8 mm long, ovoid, or oval, prominently angled, covered with rusty-brown hairs; cups 10-20 mm wide, mostly turbinate or hemispheric, decidedly tapering at the base, the scales at the thick edge squarrose or loosely imbricate, cinnamon-red; acorns oblong, usually broader below than above, about 18 mm long, light yellow-brown, often striate, the shell usually lined with dense fulvous tomentum, enclosed for one-third to nearly two-thirds their length in the cups
......4 Petioles long and slender, (14-) 20-50 mm long; lower leaf surfaces densely puberulent with tawny stellate hairs whose structure is barely visible at 10× magnification
1 Leaves shallowly to deeply 5-12-lobed (some of the leaves of Q. georgiana only 3-lobed), the lobes primarily lateral.
..........6 Mature leaves pubescent beneath on the surface with stellate hairs.
............ 7 Leaves 5-10 (-12) cm long, 5-lobed; shrub or small tree; [w. NC northward]; [section Lobatae; subsection Phellos]
............ 7 Leaves (8-) 10-20 cm long, 5-12-lobed; small to large trees[collectively widespread in our area].
............ ..8 Petioles 0.5-1.0 (-1.8) cm long, generally twisted such that the blade is oriented in a vertical plane; leaves all deeply lobed, some of the sinuses extending > 4/5 of the way to the midrib; pubescence of the lower leaf surface greenish yellow, matted, and glandlike, usually sloughing off by late in the year; [section Lobatae; subsection Phellos]
............ ..8 Petioles 2-5 cm long, not twisted so that the blade is oriented in a vertical plane; leaves shallowly to deeply lobed, some of the leaves on a tree generally shallowly lobed, none of the sinuses extending > 2/3 of the way to the midrib; pubescence of the lower leaf surface tawny or gray, stellate, not glandlike, persistent or sloughing off by late in the year.
............ ....9 Acorns 12-20 mm long, in a cup 15-25 mm across and 10-12 mm deep; mature leaves loosely and rather coarsely pubescent (the stellate hairs conspicuous and readily distinguishable at 10× magnification), often becoming nearly or entirely glabrous by late in the year (except for tufts of hairs in the vein axils); terminal bud 4-angled, 7-10 mm long, densely gray-tomentose; [section Lobatae; subsection Coccineae]
............ ....9 Acorns 10-15 mm long, in a cup 12-14 mm across and 4-5 mm deep; mature leaves densely and finely pubescent (the stellate hairs minute and scarcely distinguishable at 10× magnification), the pubescence permanent; terminal bud only obscurely angled (if at all), 5-8 mm long, brown-puberulent; [section Lobatae; subsection Phellos].
............ ......10 Base of blades of sun-leaves typically rounded, thus forming a U-shape (some leaves cuneate, angled, or oblique); terminal lobe of leaves generally long-attenuated, narrow (its sides nearly parallel for much of its length), and curved to one side (falcate) (note that trees with the trilobed leaf form will key out above); leaves with 3-7 well-developed lobes, these often very irregular in size, shape, spacing, and orientation; pubescence of lower leaf surface normally tawny (when fresh)
............ ......10 Base of blades of sun-leaves typically cuneate or angled, thus forming a V-shape (some leaves somewhat U-shaped or oblique); terminal lobe of leaves generally short, broadly triangular (its sides normally tapering toward the tip for most of their length), not strongly curved to one side; leaves with 5-9 well-developed lobes, these generally rather uniform in size, shape, spacing, and orientation; pubescence of leaf surface gray
..........6 Mature leaves glabrous beneath on the surface, with tufts of hairs in the main vein axils beneath.
............ ........11 Petioles 0.5-1.0 (-1.8) cm long, generally twisted such that the blade is oriented in a vertical plane; inner cup-scales of the acorn cup inflexed, thus the cup appearing to have a broadly rounded rim; [section Lobatae; subsection Phellos]
............ ........11 Petioles 2.0-7 cm long, not twisted so that the blade is oriented in a vertical plane; inner cup-scales of the acorn cup not inflexed, thus the cup appearing to have a sharp rim appressed against the acorn.
............ ..........12 Terminal buds 4-angled, 7-10 mm long, the bud scales densely gray-tomentose; [section Lobatae; subsection Coccineae]
............ ..........12 Terminal buds not 4-angled, 3-5 (-7) mm long, the bud scales glabrous or with ciliate margins.
............ ............ 13 Leaves relatively shallowly lobed, the sinuses extending up to 2/3 of the way to the midrib; upper leaf surface dull, not lustrous; [section Lobatae; subsection Coccineae].
............ ............ ..14 Acorn cup covering about 1/4 of acorn; leaf sinuses extending about ¼ of the way to the midrib; bark of mature trees dark gray to black; [widespread in our area, at low to medium elevations]
............ ............ ..14 Acorn cup covering about 1/3 of acorn; leaf sinuses extending about 1/3 of the way to the midrib; bark of mature trees medium gray; [of the Mountains, mostly at 1000 m and above]
............ ............ 13 Leaves relatively deeply lobed, the sinuses extending 2/3 to 9/10 of the way to the midrib; upper leaf surface lustrous.
............ ............ ....15 Larger lateral lobes of most leaves with 1 bristle per lobe (-2 on some lobes); total bristle tips < 10/leaf; [section Lobatae; subsection Phellos]
............ ............ ....15 Larger lateral lobes of most leaves with 2 or more bristles; total bristle tips 9-50/leaf.
............ ............ ......16 Terminal bud moderately to strongly silver or reddish pubescent in its upper half; [section Lobatae; subsection Coccineae].
............ ............ ........17 Cup turbinate to hemispheric, scales with broad glossy base, scale margins often strongly concave; nut ovoid to subglobose, with 1 or more concentric rings of pits at apex; [of ME and WI south to s. GA, s. AL, e. LA, AR and MO]
............ ............ ........17 Cup deeply cup-shaped to turbinate, scales pubescent with straight or slightly concave margins; nut ellipsoid to ovoid, without rings of pits at apex; [of n. OH west to e. ND, south to c. IL and MO]
............ ............ ......16 Terminal bud glabrous or with a few scattered hairs.
............ ............ ..........18 Lower surface of mature leaf blade glabrous or with minute tufts of hairs in the vein axils; acorn scar 3.5-8 mm in diameter; [of e. and c. OK south to sc. TX]; [section Lobatae; subsection Coccineae].
............ ............ ..........18 Lower surface of mature leaf blade with conspicuous tufts of hairs in the vein axils; acorn scar 5-13 mm in diameter; [collectively widespread].
............ ............ ............ 19 Primary leaf lobes (and the secondary veins leading to them) largely alternate; acorn cup with thin (< 1.5 mm in cross section) walls, deeply goblet-shaped, covering 1/3-1/2 of the nut, the inner surface pubescent; [section Lobatae; subsection Palustres]
............ ............ ............ 19 Primary leaf lobes (and the secondary veins leading to them) opposite or sub-opposite; acorn cup with thick (> 1.5 mm in cross section) walls, saucer- or cup-shaped, covering 1/4-1/3 of the nut, inner surface glabrous or with ring of hairs around scar.
............ ............ ............ ..20 Leaf blades mostly as wide or wider than long, 5 (-7)-lobed; [of dry glades and ridgetops]; [section Lobatae; subsection Coccineae]
............ ............ ............ ....21 [fairly widespread in the inland provinces]
............ ............ ............ ..20 Leaf blades mostly longer than wide, 5-7 (-11)-lobed; [of submesic or moist slopes and bottomlands].
............ ............ ............ ......22 Nuts (8-) 10-14 (-16) mm long; mature leaf blades mostly 7-12 cm long, 5-11 cm wide (averaging about 9 cm long and 8 cm wide), with 5-7 lobes; [section Lobatae; subsection Palustres]
............ ............ ............ ......22 Nuts 14-30 mm long; mature leaf blades mostly (7.5-) 10-20 cm long, 6-15 cm wide (averaging about 13 cm long and 11 cm wide), with (5-) 7-9 (-11) lobes; [section Lobatae; subsection Coccineae]
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