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Key to Silene

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1 Styles mostly 5; capsule with 5 or 10 teeth; calyx tubular at anthesis, becoming strongly inflated later in S. dioica and S. latifolia.
  2 Petal limbs deeply divided into 4 linear segments; [Lychnis section Uebelinia]
  2 Petal limbs unlobed, emarginate, or shallowly 2-lobed.
    3 Leaf blades with dense silky white hairiness; flowers bisexual; [Lychnis section Agrostemma]
    3 Leaf blades variously pubescent, but not with silky-appressed pubescence; [Silene section Melandrium].
      4 Petals white; capsule teeth spreading to slightly reflexed
1 Styles mostly 3; capsule with 3 or 6 teeth; calyx tubular or campanulate at anthesis, not greatly inflated (except in S. vulgaris).
        5 Middle cauline leaves in whorls of 4; petals fimbriate
        5 Middle cauline leaves opposite; petals entire, slightly erose, bilobed, 2-cleft, or 8+-cleft.
          6 Flowers bright red.
             7 Petals entire or slightly erose at the tip; cauline leaves 5-20 pairs.
             7 Petals 2-cleft at the tip; cauline leaves 2-8 pairs.
                 9 Cauline leaves 2.0-7.0 cm wide, elliptic, obovate, or orbicular, usually 1-2× as long as wide; entire plant sticky glandular-pubescent; [of sandstone cliffs and crevices, s. OH and WV south through sw. VA, KY, and e. TN, to nw. GA and n. AL]
                 9 Cauline leaves 0.8-4.0 cm wide, mostly oblanceolate, usually at least 2.5× as long as wide; plant not covered with sticky glandular hairs; [of various, mostly rocky, habitats, widespread in our region].
                   10 Cauline leaves (excluding bracteal leaves) in 2-4 pairs; basal leaves not conspicuously clustered; [mountains of e. WV, se. KY, and e. TN]
                   10 Cauline leaves (excluding bracteal leaves) in 1 (-2) pairs; basal leaves often numerous and clustered; [widespread in our region]
          6 Flowers white or pink.
                     11 Petals 8-cleft or more divided; plants perennial; [native].
                       12 Plants 2-6 dm tall; petals pink, the >8 ultimate segments of each dichotomously forked at nearly right angles; calyx ca. 2.5 cm long; stem with long, villous pubescence
                       12 Plants (5-) 7-15 dm tall; petals white, the 8 segments of each essentially parallel to one another; calyx ca. 1 cm long; stem with short rigid pubescence
                     11 Petals entire, bilobed, or 2-cleft; plants 0.5-8 dm tall, perennial or annual; [either exotic weeds occurring mostly in disturbed sites, or native in forests, woodlands, or rock outcrops].
                          13 Plant < 2.5 dm tall; plant perennial, with a stout, carrot-like taproot; [native, of woodlands, rock outcrops, barrens, glades, and dry roadbanks].
                            14 Calyx pubescence of long, straight, nonglandular hairs; [of OH, WV, VA, and MO south to AL]
                            14 Calyx pubescence of glandular hairs; [of NC and ne. TN northward in and east of the Appalachians].
                              15 Leaves pubescent over the surface with appressed, white hairs, also ciliate on the margin; basal leaves mostly obtuse to rounded at the apex, to 12 cm long and 3 cm wide; [of NC south]
                              15 Leaves glabrous on the surface, ciliate on the margin; basal leaves mostly acute to obtuse at the apex, to 15 cm long and 2 cm wide; [of NC north]
                          13 Plant usually 2-8 dm tall (depauperate individuals rarely smaller); plant annual or biennial (perennial from a creeping rhizome in S. nivea and S. vulgaris), lacking a carrot-like taproot; [exotic, mostly of disturbed habitats (except S. nivea and S. antirrhina).
                                         20 Fruiting calyx ovoid, contracted at the mouth to ca. ½ the diameter of the calyx at its widest point; stamens ca. 2× as long as the calyx; filaments purple
                                         20 Fruiting calyx clavate or campanulate, not contracted at the mouth; stamens 1.0-1.5× as long as the calyx; filaments usually white.
                                           21 Petal appendages absent or to 0.2 mm long; inflorescences with reduced leaves resembling bracts; [exotic, mostly of disturbed habitats]
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