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Key to Apocynaceae

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1 Plant erect or trailing (but not twining), herbaceous or woody.
..2 Plant a woody shrub or trailing woody vine.
....3 Plant rhizomatous, suffrutescent, < 4 dm tall; leaves narrowly to broadly ovate; flowers blue, lavender, or white
....3 Plant erect, > 4 dm tall; leaves either lanceolate or elliptic; flowers yellow, white, pink, or red.
......4 Flowers yellow; shrub 4-12 dm tall, with only a few wand-like branches; [very rare waif in our area]
......4 Flowers white, pink, or red; shrub 10-40 dm tall, much branched from the base; [commonly cultivated in our area (and sometimes persistent), particularly near the coast]
..2 Plant an herb or trailing herbaceous vine.
........5 Flowers with conspicuous or less conspicuous corona; follicles not paired; seeds with coma present
..........6 Plant wither an erect herb or a decumbent herb with stiff, thick stems (> 4 mm in diameter); leaves various, but not both petiolate and heart-shaped
..........6 Plant a trailing herbaceous vine with weak, thin stems (<2 mm in diameter); leaves petiolate and heart-shaped, 2-4 cm long
........5 Flowers lacking corona; follicles paired (occasionally single by abortion); seeds with coma absent (Catharanthus, Amsonia) or present (Apocynum).
............ 7 Leaves alternate (rarely a few on a plant subopposite)
............ 7 Leaves opposite.
............ ..8 Flower < 8 mm across; paired follicles pendent, 10-22 cm long; seeds with coma; mature plants normally > 7 dm tall
............ ..8 Flower > 20 mm across; paired follicles erect, 1.5-2.5 cm long; seeds lacking coma; mature plants 2-6 dm tall
1 Plant twining, herbaceous or woody.
............ ....9 Leaves cordate at base, ovate to broadly lanceolate, < 4× as long as wide.
............ ......10 Plants in flower.
............ ........11 Petals white; gynostegial corona > ¾ as long as the corolla lobes
............ ........11 Petals purple-black, brown, yellow, yellow-green, cream, or maroon (white in Matelea baldwyniana); gynostegial corona < ½ as long as the corolla lobes.
............ ..........12 Corolla lobes glabrous on the outer surface; dorsal anther appendages laminar; carpels smooth and angled
............ ..........12 Corolla lobes glandular-puberulent or puberulent on the outer surface; dorsal anther appendages absent; carpels muricate (Matelea) or smooth (Vincetoxicum).
............ ............ 13 Corolla lobes (5-) 6-18 mm long, purple-black, brown, maroon, yellow, yellow-green, cream, or white
............ ............ 13 Corolla lobes, 1.5-4.5 mm long, purple-black, brown, or maroon
............ ......10 Plants in fruit.
............ ............ ..14 Follicles smooth and angled.
............ ............ ....15 Leaves cordate, broadly rounded, tapering abruptly to an acute, obtuse, or apiculate apex
............ ............ ....15 Leaves deeply cordate, tapering steadily to an acuminate apex.
............ ............ ......16 Corona a fleshy, lobed cup
............ ............ ......16 Corona nearly as long as to longer than the corolla lobes
............ ....9 Leaves not cordate at base (cuneate, rounded, or truncate); leaves ovate, lanceolate, or linear, > 1.5× as long as wide.
............ ............ ........17 Leaves linear, the margins parallel.
............ ............ ..........18 Leaves petiolate; calyx lobes deltoid, obtuse, ca. 1 mm long; leaves petiolate, not reflexed, often caducous; follicle 1-3 mm in diameter; [of se. SC and southwards]
............ ............ ..........18 Leaves sessile; calyx lobes lanceolate, acute, (1.3-) 1.5-2.5 mm long; leaves sessile, reflexed, persistent; follicle 6-7 mm in diameter; [of ne. NC and southwards]
............ ............ ........17 Leaves not linear, instead ovate or lanceolate (rarely deltoid/rhomboid shaped).
............ ............ ............ 19 Flowers primarily white, whitish-green, or creamy yellow.
............ ............ ............ ..20 Flowers with a corona; greenish-white
............ ............ ............ ..20 Flowers lacking a corona, white to creamy yellow.
............ ............ ............ ....21 Corolla lobes 3-4 mm long, acute, reflexed, pale yellow; leaves subcoriaceous; [native, common]
............ ............ ............ ....21 Corolla lobes 8-12 mm long, rounded, spreading, white; leaves coriaceous; [alien, commonly planted, rarely persistent or spreading]

Key to Cynanchum

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1 Leaves linear, cuneate at the base.
..2 Calyx lobes deltoid, obtuse, ca. 1 mm long; leaves petiolate, not reflexed, often caducous; follicle 1-3 mm in diameter; [of se. SC and south]
..2 Calyx lobes lanceolate, acute, (1.3-) 1.5-2.5 mm long; leaves sessile, reflexed, persistent; follicle 6-7 mm in diameter; [of ne. NC and south]
1 Leaves oblong or ovate, cordate, subcordate, or rounded at the base.
....3 Leaves oblong or ovate, rounded or subcordate at base; corona a fleshy, lobed cup
....3 Leaves broadly cordate, deeply cordate at base; corona of 5 erect, petaloid segments, each divided into 2 slender lobes.
......4 Peduncle usually shorter than the the petiole of the subtending leaf; appendages nearly as long as the corolla, deeply divided into linear segments
......4 Peduncle about as long as, or longer than, the petiole of the subtending leaf; appendages less than 2/3 as long as the corolla, broadly oblong with a totthed or lobed apex