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Key to Lamiaceae

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1 Fruit a fleshy drupe; plant a small tree, shrub, or sprawling vine; mature stems terete or obscurely 4-sided (by secondary growth).
  2 Flowers zygomorphic; leaves simple or palmately (3-) 5-7 (-9) foliolate; [subfamily Viticoideae]
  2 Flowers essentially actinomorphic; leaves simple.
    3 Stems pubescent with dendritic hairs; inflorescence axillary; calyx 0.5-2 mm, lobes diminutive to nearly obsolete; [genus incertae sedis]
    3 Stems glabrous or pubescent with simple hairs; inflorescence terminal (rarely only axillary); calyx 5-18 mm, lobes conspicuous; [subfamily Ajugoideae]
1 Fruit a schizocarp of 4 dry mericarps; plant either an herb or a shrub to 5 (-20) dm tall; mature stems usually distinctly 4-sided (sometimes terete or obscurely 4-sided).
      4 Calyx with either a distinctly enlarged protuberance on the upper surface, or the upper lobe expanded and “cap-like”.
        5 Calyx with 5 lobes, clearly separate apically, with the upper lobe expanded and “cap-like”
        5 Calyx with 2 entire lobes joined at the margins, rounded apically, with a distinct protuberance on the upper surface
      4 Calyx without an enlarged protuberance or “cap-like” upper lobe.
          6 Upper lip of corolla greatly reduced or lobes laterally disposed, thus the corolla appearing to consist of one large lower lip; [subfamily Ajugoideae].
             7 Lower lip with 2-4 lobes; flowers yellow or deep blue-purple; plants stoloniferous
             7 Lower lip appearing 5-lobed (proximal 2 lateral, erect lobes represent the cryptic upper lip); flowers white to pink; plants cespitose
          6 Upper lip of corolla conspicuous, flaring or galeate.
               8 Plants distinctly repent and rooting at the nodes, or producing elongate stolons.
                   10 Herbs; leaves cordate-reniform, coarsely crenate, the blade > 1 cm long; inflorescence of axillary cymules; corollas 10-20 mm
                   10 Subshrubs; leaves ovate to elliptic, entire, the blade < 1 cm long; inflorescence a terminal thyrse; corollas 4-5 mm
                            14 Calyx with 3-4 prominent lobes (rarely 5, if one includes small teeth).
                                16 Calyx with 4 unequal primary lobes; flowers large, 2.5-3.5 cm long, in bracteate terminal racemes
                                16 Calyx with 3 primary lobes (upper lobe occasionally with 3 apiculate teeth, e.g. Salvia lyrata); flowers 3 cm or less, in terminal thyrses.
                                  17 Stamens 4; calyx enveloped and partially concealed by subtending bracts
                                  17 Stamens 2; calyx not enveloped by subtending bracts.
                                    18 Herbs; calyx with simple trichomes; leaves non-revolute, margins various, membranaceous
                            14 Calyx usually with 5 prominent lobes (except for Clinopodium with rarely fused upper lobes).
                                                          28 Stamens ascending under the upper corolla lip, either included within the tube (or at least not clearly exserted beyond it).
                                                                     33 Stems often with swollen nodes (areas just below appear dark and sunken upon drying, except G. ladanum); hairs of the stem either exclusively hispid or short recurved and mixed with longer glandular trichomes; corolla 15-28 mm long
                                                                     33 Stems without swollen nodes; hairs of the stem finely and softly retrorse, generally lacking glandular hairs (though sessile glands may be present); corolla 5-14 mm long.

Key to Salvia

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1 Leaves predominantly basal.
  2 Veins of the 3 upper calyx lobes parallel, the lobes themselves minute and widely-spaced (> 1 mm between the 2 lateral teeth), separated by flattish sinuses; basal leaves lobed; [native, though weedy, common throughout our area]
  2 Veins of the 3 upper calyx lobes converging, the lobes themselves minute and spaced within a distance of 1 mm; basal leaves lobed or toothed; cauline leaves toothed (rarely lobed); [exotic weeds, rarely naturalized in our area].
    3 Upper corolla-lip strongly arched; leaves serrate
    3 Upper corolla-lip straight; leaves lobed
1 Leaves predominantly cauline, not lobed.
      4 Leaves rhombic-ovate, the base cordate, subcordate, truncate, or broadly cuneate.
        5 Petiole not clearly differentiated from the leaf blade (leaf tissue decurrent on the petiole for most or all its length); corolla blue
          6 Leaves with cuneate bases extending into a winged petiole; plants typically with both terminal and axillary inflorescences; corolla 7-12 mm long; flowering Aug-Oct
          6 Leaves with abruptly truncate bases into a winged petiole; plants typically with a single terminal inflorescence; corolla 10-17 mm long; flowering Apr-May
        5 Petiole clearly differentiated from the leaf blade; corolla blue, white, or scarlet.
             7 Corolla scarlet; larger leaves 3-6.5 cm long
             7 Corolla blue or whitish; leaves 5-20 cm long
               8 Upper calyx lip > ½× as long as the calyx tube; flowers 4-12 per node; leaves (8-) 12-20 cm long
               8 Upper calyx lip < 1/3× as long as the calyx tube; flowers 12-30 per node; leaves 5-10 cm long
                   10 Leaves canescent, gray; [introduced, rarely persistent from cultivation in gardens]
                   10 Leaves puberulent, green; [native, of dry woodlands from sc. NC southward and westward].
                     11 Flowers 2 (-4) per node; corolla 8-12 mm long; annual
                     11 Flowers 6-10 flowers per node; corolla > 13 mm long; perennial
                       12 Stem usually with sparse, antrorse or somewhat spreading pubescence; calyx with antrorse hairs limited to major veins; flowers of mature inflorescences spaced out, most internodes elongate and ranging up to 25 (-34) mm; [Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain and adjacent piedmont, from south-central NC to central FL to southeast LA]
                       12 Stem usually with dense, retrorse pubescence; calyx with dense antrorse pubescence; flowers of mature inflorescences densely arranged, internodes between flowers very short, only the lowermost 1-3 internodes elongate and ranging up to 12 (-17) mm; [inland and prairie sites, ranging from IL, IA, NE, and e. CO south to nw. GA, n. AL, ne. MS, LA, and se. and c. TX]
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