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Key to Campanula

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  2 Stem erect; leaf obviously serrate or crenate; [of FL and northward, of uplands]
  2 Stem sprawling; leaf entire or with a few obscure teeth; [of FL wetlands].
    3 Corolla 14-18 mm across; sepals 6-9 mm long
    3 Corolla 7-8 mm across; sepals 1-2.5 mm long
      4 Stems weak and slender, reclining, 3-angled, retrorsely scabrous.
      4 Stems more robust, erect, terete to bluntly or sharply angled, glabrous or with antrorse hairs.
        5 Flowers sessile in a terminal glomerule (sometimes also in axillary glomerules)
        5 Flowers pedicellate, axillary or in a terminal raceme or panicle.
          6 Inflorescence a diffuse panicle (with at least 2 orders of branching); flowers on long pedicels (generally longer than 40 mm long); [native species of rock outcrops or rocky woodlands].
             7 Corolla 6-8 mm long; leaves lanceolate, averaging about 1 cm wide, generally with prominent, often somewhat divergent teeth
             7 Corolla 12-20 mm long; leaves (of the stem) linear, averaging < 5 mm wide, generally lacking teeth (or the teeth minute and obscure)
          6 Inflorescence a raceme (sometimes leafy, the flowers therefore essentially axillary); flowers mostly on short pedicels < 5 mm long (or to considerably longer in C. persicifolia); [exotic species usually of disturbed areas].
               8 Corollas > (25-) 35-55 mm long
               8 Corollas < 30 (-35) mm long.
                 9 Ovary hairy with spreading or retrorse hairs; stem leaves (at least the lower) distinctly petioled.
                   10 Flowers nodding; calyx lobes spreading to strongly reflexed at maturity
                   10 Flowers erect to spreading; calyx lobes erect, more-or-less appressed (including at maturity)

Key to Campanulaceae

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1 Corollas bilaterally symmetrical (zygomorphic); carpels 2; [subfamily Lobelioideae]
1 Corollas radially symmetrical (actinomorphic); carpels (2-) 3-5; [subfamily Campanuloideae].
  2 Capsule dehiscent apically; flowers solitary or in very diffuse panicles (Platycodon, Wahlenbergia), or in compact involucrate umbels (Jasione); [exotics, generally in weedy or disturbed situations].
    3 Flowers and fruits borne in an involucrate umbel
    3 Flowers and fruits solitary or in a diffuse inflorescence.
      4 Flowers large, 1 to few, solitary or nearly so; leaves large, ovate to elliptic; [Platycodonoid clade]
      4 Flowers small, several to many, borne in a diffuse inflorescence; leaves small, linear to narrowly elliptic; [Wahlenbergioid clade]
  2 Capsule dehiscent laterally (the pores nearly apical in some Campanula); flowers in spikes, racemes, or panicles; [mostly native species of various habitats (some of them weedy)].
        5 Inflorescence spicate, the flowers sessile, mostly in the axils of well-developed leaves; corollas rotate and style straight.
          6 Stamen filaments hairy towards the base; stem strict, unbranched; flowers chasmogamous, but often with the lowest flowers cleistogamous
        5 Inflorescence racemose or paniculate, the flowers pedicelled, sometimes axillary to well-developed leaves; corollas campanulate, funnelform, or rotate, with a straight or curved style
               8 Stems weak and slender, reclining, 3-angled.
               8 Stems more robust, erect, terete or nearly so.
                 9 Stem erect; leaf obviously serrate or crenate; [Panhandle FL and northwards, of upland habitats]
                 9 Stem sprawling; leaf entire or with a few obscure teeth; [FL, s. GA, and s. AL, of wetland habitats].
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