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Key to Ludwigia, Key C: Ludwigia with alternate leaves, 4 stamens, 4 sepals, and 0-4 petals (sections Ludwigia and Microcarpium)

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1 Pedicels 2-15 mm long; capsules subglobose to spheric or cubic, about as long as wide, box-like, 4-angled, dehiscence by an apical pore (later sometimes also irregularly loculicidal); petals present, 4-15 mm long, persistent or caducous; roots fascicled, fusiform, tuberous; plants lacking basal, stoloniform shoots; [section Ludwigia].
..2 Leaves cuneate at base; pedicels 2-5 mm long; nectary discs at base of style flattish, inconspicuous; [widespread in our area, in a wide variety of habitats]
..2 Leaves rounded or truncate at base; pedicels 4-15 mm long; nectary discs at base of style domed, prominent; [nearly restricted to the Coastal Plain, primarily of pinelands].
....3 Styles 6-10 mm long; plants glabrous, glabrescent, or pubescent with very short hairs; sepals strongly reflexed in fruit
....3 Styles 1.5-3 mm long; plants glabrescent or pubescent with short to long, spreading to shaggy hairs; sepals strongly reflexed, spreading, or ascending in fruit.
......4 Sepals narrowly deltoid, broadest at or near the base, 3-4× as long as wide, ascending or spreading in fruit; plants glabrescent to hirtellous with long spreading hairs
......4 Sepals ovate, broadest near the middle, ca. 2× as long as wide, strongly reflexed in fruit; plants pubescent with relatively short, appressed to spreading hairs
1 Pedicels 0-1 (-5) mm long; capsules subglobose, obconic, or obpyramidal, about as long as wide or longer than wide, circular to quadrangular in cross-section, dehiscence irregularly loculicidal; petals absent or present, if present (L. linearis, L. linifolia) then 0-6 mm long and caducous; roots fibrous or rhizomatous; plants frequently with basal, stoloniform shoots; [section Isnardia].
........5 Capsules cylindrical, narrowly obconical, or narrowly obpyramidal, at least 2.5-5× as long as broad; petals present or absent.
..........6 Primary leaves of the flowering stems narrowly elliptical, 6-12 (-20) mm wide; petals absent.
............ 7 Capsules 2-4 mm long; seed surface cells elongate transversely to seed length
............ 7 Capsules (4-) 5-8 (-9) mm long; seed surface cells elongate parallel to seed length
..........6 Primary leaves of the flowering stems linear, 1.5-5 mm wide; petals present.
............ ..8 Sepals (3.3-) 4-7 mm long; lateral and marginal veins obscure on lower leaf surface; seeds reddish brown; capsules cylindric, parallel-sided through most of their length, not grooved; anthers 0.5-1.1 mm long
............ ..8 Sepals 2.3-5 (-5.6) mm long; lateral and marginal veins distinct on lower leaf surface; seeds yellowish; capsules elongate obpyramidal, tapering through most or all of their length, with a shallow longitudinal groove on each face; anthers 1.1-2 mm long.
............ ....9 Sepals 2.3-4 mm long, acuminate, the surfaces densely and minutely papillose, the papillae 0.02-0.05 mm long and appressed; capsules 5-8.5 (-10) mm long, 2-4 (-5) mm in diameter; pedicels 0-0.4 mm long; seed surface cells elongate parallel to the seed length (as seen at 20× or more); anthers 1.1-1.6 mm long
............ ....9 Sepals 3-5 (-5.6) mm long, elongate-acuminate to cuspidate, the surfaces densely minutely strigillose, the hairs 0.06-0.10 mm long and appressed to ascending; capsules 5-10 (-12) mm long, 3-5.5 mm in diameter; pedicels 0-3.5 (-5) mm long; seed surface cells elongate transverse to the seed length, or irregular (as seen at 20× or more); anthers (1.1-) 1.3-2 mm long
........5 Capsules subglobose, obovoid, or broadly obpyramidal, 1-1.5 × as long as broad; petals absent.
............ ......10 Flowers in compact, headlike or elongate spikes, the inflorescence lacking well-developed leaves; stems rarely branched; rhizomes often present
............ ......10 Flowers axillary in the axils of well-developed leaves; stems usually much branched; rhizomes absent.
............ ........11 Plants densely pubescent throughout.
............ ..........12 Sepal apex elongate-acuminate or subcuspidate, reflexed; pubescence of stems and leaves hirtellous (the hairs spreading); seed surface cells suborbicular (as seen at 20× or more); anthers 0.6-0.9 (-1.3) mm long; style 1-2 mm long
............ ..........12 Sepal apex acuminate, ascending; pubescence of stems and leaves strigillose (the hairs appressed) or hirtellous (the hairs spreading); seed surface cells elongate; anthers 0.3-0.8 mm long; style 0.25-1 (-1.25) mm long.
............ ............ 13 Plants hirtellous; capsules oblong-obovoid; sepals greenish on the upper surface; bracteoles (1.5-) 2-4.3 mm long, borne at or near the base of the capsule; seed surface cells elongate transverse to the seed length; anthers 0.3-0.35 mm long; style 0.25-0.5 mm long
............ ............ 13 Plants strigillose; capsules subglobose; sepals yellowish on the upper surface; bracteoles 0.5-1.5 mm long, usually borne on the short pedicel; seed surface cells in patches, some patches with cells elongate parallel to seed length, others with cells transverse to seed length, others with cells diagonal (rather resembling a badly laid-out parque floor); anthers 0.5-0.8 mm long; style 0.55-1 (-1.25) mm long
............ ........11 Plants glabrous or subglabrous throughout.
............ ............ ..14 Primary leaves of the flowering stems 4-17 mm long, 1.5-10 mm wide, mostly obovate-spatulate and 1.5-3× as long as wide; capsules 1-1.5 (-2) mm long, containing 10-20 dark reddish-brown seeds; plants typically 1-4 dm tall; nectary disc nearly flat on ovary apex
............ ............ ..14 Primary leaves of the flowering stems (18-) 30-110 mm long, 2-10 (-20) mm wide, mostly elliptic, lanceolate, oblanceolate, or linear and 4-20× as long as wide; capsules 1.8- 2-7 mm long, containing 40-500 light brown, yellowish, or tan seeds; plants typically 3-10 dm tall; nectary disc distinctly raised on ovary apex.
............ ............ ....15 Capsules obpyramidal, the corners narrowly winged with wings 0.3-0.9 mm wide.
............ ............ ......16 Stems often distinctly ridged or winged; sepals creamy-white, nearly as long as the capsule; capsule wall bulging out longitudinally between the wings; seed surface cells elongate parallel to the seed length
............ ............ ......16 Stems nearly smooth or slightly ridged; sepals greenish, about 1/2 as long as the capsule; capsule wall flat between the wings; seed surface cells suborbicular
............ ............ ........17 Cauline leaves lanceolate, oblong-elliptic to narrowly so, 30-110 mm long, usually about 10 × as long as wide; capsules dehiscing by irregular rupture of the outer walls; stolons present; [collectively widespread].
............ ............ ..........18 Bracteoles 3.5-6.5 (-8) mm long; sepals green, the apex long-acuminate, reflexed; capsules oblong-obovoid; seed surface cells elongate parallel to the seed length
............ ............ ..........18 Bracteoles 0.5-1.5 mm long; sepals yellowish, the apex acuminate, ascending capsules subglobose; seed surface cells in patches, some patches with cells elongate parallel to seed length, others with cells transverse to seed length, others with cells diagonal (rather resembling a badly laid-out parquet floor)
............ ............ ........17 Cauline leaves obovate-spatulate to oblanceolate, 16-30 mm long, usually < 5× as long as wide; capsules dehiscing by 4 longitudinally lenticular slits on the wall opposite the locules; stolons not common; [FL and MS].
............ ............ ............ 19 Capsules 2.5-4.7 mm long; sepals 1.5-3 mm long; vestigial petals occasionally present; lower or seedling leaves always alternate
............ ............ ............ 19 Capsules 1.5-2.5 mm long; sepals 1.2-1.8 mm long; vestigial petals rare; lower or seedling leaves tending to be opposite or subopposite
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