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Key D: goldenrods with stem leaves dominant and axillary inflorescences
(section Solidago, subsections Argutae, Glomeruliflorae, Squarrosae, Thyrsiflorae)

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1 Leaves entire or obscurely few-toothed; achenes glabrous at maturity; outer phyllaries with squarrose tips (tips appressed in S. rigidiuscula).
..2 Outer phyllaries appressed; [subsection Squarrosae]
..2 Outer phyllaries with squarrose tips; [subsection Thyrsiflorae].
....3 Leaves oblanceolate-obovate, often short acuminate at the apex; mid-stem leaves 8-14 cm long, 18-40 mm wide, the margins sharply serrate on at least the upper 2/3
....3 Leaves narrowly to broadly elliptic (or less commonly slightly oblanceolate), acute at the apex; mid-stem leaves 3-8 (-10) cm long, 8-25 mm wide, margins entire to shallowly serrate on only the upper ½ to 2/3.
......4 Middle and inner series phyllaries glabrous, usually minutely glandular or resinous and shiny; mid and upper stem leaves usually narrowly lanceolate, rarely broadly lanceolate to ovate, green to shiny silvery; [MO to LA west to e. KS to se. and c. TX, disjunct in n. COA]
......4 Middle and inner series phyllaries sparsely to moderately strigose, sometimes minutely glandular; mid and upper stem leaves lanceolate-elliptic to ovate-elliptic; [NC to n. FL west to AL; e. KS, e. OK, c. TX westwards]
........5 Involucres at anthesis (6-) avg. 7.5 (-8) mm high; [NC to n. FL west to AL, disjunct in e. TX]
........5 Involucres at anthesis (4.3-) avg. 5.3 (-7) mm high; [e. KS, e. OK, c. TX westwards]
1 Leaves generally many- and sharp-toothed; achenes persistently pubescent; outer phyllaries with appressed tips; [subsection Glomeruliflorae].
..........6 Stem terete, glaucous.
............ 7 Lower midstem leaves narrowly lanceolate, 5-15 cm long, 0.8-3 cm wide, 5-6× as long as wide; stems strongly arching; plants growing singly; [widespread in our area]
............ 7 Lower midstem leaves broadly lanceolate to rhombic, 5-9 cm long, 1.3-2.4 cm wide, 3-4× as long as wide; stems weakly arching; plants usually strongly clonal, forming relatively dense patches; [Coastal Plain, NC to FL, west to LA and AR]
..........6 Stem striate-angled, green.
............ ..8 Larger leaf blades on a plant 2-6 cm long; stems densley villous with spreading white hairs; [endemic to sandstone rockhouses in the Red River Gorge in Menifee, Powell, and Wolfe counties, KY]
............ ..8 Larger leaf blades on a plant 8-20 cm long; stems glabrous or sparsely to moderately hairy, the hairs neither long nor white; [of various dry and mesic habitats, collectively widespread in our area].
............ ....9 Leaves 1-3 (-3.5)× as long as wide.
............ ......10 Leaves 1-2.2 (-2.5)× as long as wide, abruptly contracted to a winged petiole; teeth of the leaf margins elongate and narrow, acuminate, mostly (2-) 3-8 mm long (as measured on the upper side of the tooth)
............ ......10 Leaves (2.2-) 2.5-3 (-3.5)× as long as wide, cuneate to a sessile base; teeth of the leaf margins not notably elongate and narrow, mostly 1-2 (-3) mm long (as measured on the upper side of the tooth), but sometimes longer and more like S. flexicaulis
............ ........11 Achenes sparsely to moderately strigose; ray flowers 2-4 (-6); [Appalachian, east of the Mississippi River]
............ ........11 Achenes glabrous; ray flower 1; [Ouachitas, AR and OK]
............ ....9 Leaves 3-10× as long as wide.
............ ..........12 Plants solitary; involucres (5-) 5.6-7 (-8) high, eglandular; phyllaries 0.7-1 mm wide, usually 1-nerved; stems 4-9 (-10) dm tall; ray flowers 2-4 (-6); [broadly Appalachian]
............ ..........12 Forming dense, clonal colonies from thick, creeping rhizomes; involucres 6.4-8.5 (-9) high, glandular pubescent; phyllaries 1-1.5 mm wide, usually 3-10-nerved; stems (2-) 7-16 dm tall; ray flowers 5-8; [apparently restricted to high elevations in the Blue Ridge of w. NC, e. TN, and sw. VA]
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