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Key to Sapindaceae

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1 Leaves opposite; leaves either palmately compound, or simple (and then palmately lobed and/or toothed), or pinnately compound.
..2 Leaves either simple (and palmately lobed and/or toothed) or pinnately compound; flowers radially symmetrical; fruit a schizocarp of 2 samaroid mericarps; [family Aceraceae; or subfamily Hippocastanoideae, tribe Acereae]
..2 Leaves palmately compound; flowers bilaterally symmetrical; fruit a capsule, usually with single large “nut-like” seed; [family Hippocastanaceae; or subfamily Hippocastaoideae, tribe Hippocastaneae]
1 Leaves alternate; leaves compound (if unifoliolate and thus appearing simple [Dodonaea], then unlobed and with entire margins).
....3 Leaves unifoliolate, appearing simple; [subfamily Dodonaeoideae, tribe Dodonaeae]
....3 Leaves compound.
......4 Herbaceous vines or lianas; leaves 3-foliolate or otherwise compound (biternately or pinnately compound); [subfamily Sapindoideae, tribe Paullinieae]
........5 Leaves 3-foliolate
........5 Leaves pinnately to biternately compound.
..........6 Fruit a schizocarp with 3 winged mericarps; seeds lacking a pseudohilum
..........6 Fruit an inflated, papery capsule; seeds with a white or pale tan heart-shaped or kidney-shaped mark (pseudohilum)
......4 Tree or shrub; leaves 3-foliolate or pinnately or bipinnately compound.
............ 7 Leaves 3-foliolate; [subfamily Dodonaeoideae, tribe Doratoxyleae]
............ 7 Leaves pinnately or bipinnately compound.
............ ..8 Fruits dehiscent, a capsule with papery, membranaceous, coriaceous, or woody valves.
............ ....9 Leaves mostly even-pinnate.
............ ......10 Leaflet margins serrate; [subfamily Sapindoideae, tribe Cupanieae]
............ ......10 Leaflet margins entire.
............ ........11 xxx; [subfamily Sapindoideae, tribe Cupanieae]
............ ........11 yyy; [subfamily Dodonaeoideae, tribe Dodonaeae]
............ ....9 Leaves mostly odd-pinnate (with a definite terminal leaflet); [subfamily Sapindoideae, tribe Koelreuterieae]
............ ..8 Fruits indehiscent, with a leathery exterior.

Key I: woody plants with opposite, compound leaves

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1 Leaves 2-3-foliolate.
..2 Leaves 2-foliolate, with a branched tendril in the terminal position (this sometimes not developed, or withered); liana
..2 Leaves 3-foliolate, lacking tendrils; shrub, liana, or tree.
....3 Upright shrub or tree.
......4 Leaflets entire, glandular-dotted; [n. FL southwards
......4 Leaflets serrate or serrulate, not glandular-dotted; [collectively widespread].
........5 Leaflets 3-5 (-7), coarsely and jaggedly serrate, with < 5 teeth per leaflet side; fruit a schizocarp of 2 samaroid mericarps (maple “keys”)
........5 Leaflets 3, evenly serrulate, with > 10 teeth per leaflet side; fruit an inflated capsule
....3 Liana or sprawling shrub.
..........6 Flowers yellow with fused petals; stems stiff, green
..........6 Flowers either white, radially symmetrical, with separate petaloid sepals (Clematis), or blue, bilaterally symmetrical, with fused petals (Vitex).
............ 7 Leaves 3-more-foliolate; flowers white, radially symmetrical, uniseriate, with white petaloid sepals and no petals
............ 7 Leaves 1 (-3) foliolate; flowers blue, bilaterally symmetrical, biseriate, with green calyx and blue corolla
1 Leaves 4-15-foliolate.
............ ..8 Leaves palmately compound.
............ ....9 Leaflets serrate; flowers white, yellow, or red; fruit a leathery capsule, irregularly spheroidal, 2-9 cm in diameter, with 1-3 (-6) large seeds, each with a large pale hilum contrasting with the dark brown color of the rest of the seed
............ ....9 Leaflets entire; flowers blue, pink, or purple; fruit either a 4-seeded drupe, < 0.5 cm in diameter, or an elongated capsule, 8-10 cm long and ca. 0.7 cm in diameter.
............ ......10 Leaflets < 3× as long as wide, broadly rounded at the tip; fruit an elongated capsule, 8-10 cm long and ca. 0.7 cm in diameter [peninsular FL]
............ ......10 Leaflets > 4× as long as wide, acute at the tip; fruit a 4-seeded drupe, < 0.5 cm in diameter; [widespread in our region]
............ ..8 Leaves pinnately compound, bipinnately compound, or more complexly compound.
............ ........11 Plant a liana (woody vine).
............ ..........12 Leaves pinnately compound, with 7-15 coarsely serrate leaflets; perianth biseriate, with a green synsepalous calyx and an orange sympetalous corolla; fruit an elongate capsule, with many winged seeds; stems to 20 cm in diameter, with tan bark
............ ..........12 Leaves either pinnately compound, the leaflets 3-7 and coarsely serrate, or more complexly compound, the leaflets 5-many, not serrate though often lobed; perianth uniseriate, with a white, pink, or purplish aposepalous calyx and no corolla; fruit an aggregate of plumose achenes; stems to 1 cm in diameter, brown or green
............ ........11 Plant a tree or shrub, with stiff branches.
............ ............ 13 Leaves 3-7-foliolate and strictly 1-pinnate; leaflets with a few very coarse teeth; 1st year stems green; fruit a pair of winged, asymmetrical samaroid mericarps
............ ............ 13 Leaves 3-15-foliolate, 1-pinnate or partially 2-pinnate; leaflets evenly serrate with many teeth or entire; 1st year stems tan to brown (very new growth may be green); fruit either a symmetrical (winged) samara (Fraxinus) or a purplish-black, many-seeded berry (Sambucus).
............ ............ ..14 Fruit a purplish-black or red, 4-seeded berry (Sambucus); plant a shrub or small tree; stems hollow or pithy; petiole prominently grooved on the upper side; fresh leaves somewhat fleshy in texture
............ ............ ..14 Fruit either a green or tan, symmetrical (winged) samara or a blackish 5-seeded dryish drupe; plant a small to large tree; stems solid and woody; petiole nearly round in ×-section (not grooved); fresh leaves membranaceous or coriaceous in texture.
............ ............ ....15 Fruit a symmetrical samara; axillary buds suprapetiolar (though sometimes almost hidden within the strongly U-shaped petiolar attachment; [common native (also planted)]
............ ............ ....15 Fruit a nearly spherical 5-seeded dry drupe; axillary buds infrapetiolar (hidden by the swollen petiole base; [rarely escaped alien]
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