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Key to Solidago, Key D: Key to "rugosa goldenrods" -- with pinnately-veined stem leaves dominant and well-developed paniculiform inflorescences [subgenus Pleiactila; section Venosae]

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1 Larger leaves 1-2× as long as wide, 2-7 cm wide; [IL & MO south to AR]; [subgenus Pleiactila, section Venosae, subsection Drummondiani]
1 Larger leaves 2-5+× as long as wide, 0.6-4 cm wide; [collectively widespread]
..2 Leaf venation not notably reticulate; plants to 12 dm tall, from a compact caudex; [subgenus Pleiactila, section Venosae, subsection Ulmifoliae].
....3 Leaves glabrous
....3 Leaves sparsely hirsute below, at least on the midvein and larger lateral veins
..2 Leaves pinnately veined and also forming a prominent reticulum, the veins (primary, secondary, and tertiary) very evidently raised on the undersurface (less obviously so in S. fistulosa); plants to 30 (-40) dm tall, from long-creeping rhizomes, thus forming clonal patches; [subgenus Pleiactila, section Venosae, subsection Venosae].
......4 Mid-stem leaves sessile, somewhat clasping; leaf margins nearly entire to obscurely serrulate; leaves planar
......4 Mid-stem leaves subsessile, not clasping; leaf margins strongly serrate; leaves rugose.
........5 Involucres 4-6 mm high; broader phyllaries 0.7-1.2 mm wide; stems glabrous below the inflorescence; mid-stem leaves elliptic (widest near the middle)
........5 Involucres (2-) 2.5-3.5 (4.5) mm high; phyllaries mostly < 0.5 mm wide; stems hairy or glabrous below the inflorescence; mid-stem leaves lanceolate to ovate (widest below the middle).
..........6 Leaves relatively thin, not very rugose, usually sharply serrate, the apices acuminate, glabrous or soft-hairy on the surfaces; rays (4-) 5-12 (-13).
............ 7 Stem glabrous throughout (except for scattered hairs in inflorescence), stem with striate ridges decurrent from leaf bases; leaf blades appressed serrate (teeth short), blades glabrous beneath except for sparse, short, appressed, straight hairs; early blooming (1 month earlier than S. rugosa in same area); [permanently saturated, ± forested wetlands with Sphagnum moss, such as red maple-Atlantic white cedar swamps, streamhead pocosins, montane bogs]
............ 7 Stem pubescent with crinkly hairs throughout (occasional plants varying to glabrate below), stem without striate ridges decurrent from leaf bases; leaf blades sharply serrate (teeth coarse), blades villous to crinkly hairy beneath; late blooming (ca. 1 month later than S. aestivalis in same area); [dry to moist fields, meadows, and other open habitats]
..........6 Leaves relatively thick and firm, strongly rugose, usually subentire to bluntly serrate, the apices often only acute, slightly to strongly scabrous or stiffly-hairy on the surfaces; rays 4-9.
............ ..8 Inflorescences narrow, the lower lateral branches only slightly exceeding the subtending leaves; leaves sparsely pubescent; [of the Southern Appalachians]
............ ..8 Inflorescences broad, the lower lateral branches generally much longer than the subtending leaves; leaves moderately to densely pubescent; [collectively widespread].
............ ....9 Upper stem leaves lanceolate to elliptic, not much reduced relative to leaves lower on the stem
............ ....9 Upper stem leaves ovate, much reduced relative to leaves lower on the stem
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