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Key to Lamiaceae

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1 Fruit a fleshy drupe; plant a small tree, shrub, or sprawling vine; mature stems terete or obscurely 4-sided (by secondary growth).
  2 Flowers zygomorphic; leaves simple or palmately (3-) 5-7 (-9) foliolate; [subfamily Viticoideae]
  2 Flowers essentially actinomorphic; leaves simple.
    3 Stems pubescent with dendritic hairs; inflorescence axillary; calyx 0.5-2 mm, lobes diminutive to nearly obsolete; [genus incertae sedis]
    3 Stems glabrous or pubescent with simple hairs; inflorescence terminal (rarely only axillary); calyx 5-18 mm, lobes conspicuous; [subfamily Ajugoideae]
1 Fruit a schizocarp of 4 dry mericarps; plant either an herb or a shrub to 5 (-20) dm tall; mature stems usually distinctly 4-sided (sometimes terete or obscurely 4-sided).
      4 Calyx with either a distinctly enlarged protuberance on the upper surface, or the upper lobe expanded and “cap-like”.
        5 Calyx with 5 lobes, clearly separate apically, with the upper lobe expanded and “cap-like”
        5 Calyx with 2 entire lobes joined at the margins, rounded apically, with a distinct protuberance on the upper surface
      4 Calyx without an enlarged protuberance or “cap-like” upper lobe.
          6 Upper lip of corolla greatly reduced or lobes laterally disposed, thus the corolla appearing to consist of one large lower lip; [subfamily Ajugoideae].
             7 Lower lip with 2-4 lobes; flowers yellow or deep blue-purple; plants stoloniferous
             7 Lower lip appearing 5-lobed (proximal 2 lateral, erect lobes represent the cryptic upper lip); flowers white to pink; plants cespitose
          6 Upper lip of corolla conspicuous, flaring or galeate.
               8 Plants distinctly repent and rooting at the nodes, or producing elongate stolons.
                   10 Herbs; leaves cordate-reniform, coarsely crenate, the blade > 1 cm long; inflorescence of axillary cymules; corollas 10-20 mm
                   10 Subshrubs; leaves ovate to elliptic, entire, the blade < 1 cm long; inflorescence a terminal thyrse; corollas 4-5 mm
                            14 Calyx with 3-4 prominent lobes (rarely 5, if one includes small teeth).
                                16 Calyx with 4 unequal primary lobes; flowers large, 2.5-3.5 cm long, in bracteate terminal racemes
                                16 Calyx with 3 primary lobes (upper lobe occasionally with 3 apiculate teeth, e.g. Salvia lyrata); flowers 3 cm or less, in terminal thyrses.
                                  17 Stamens 4; calyx enveloped and partially concealed by subtending bracts
                                  17 Stamens 2; calyx not enveloped by subtending bracts.
                                    18 Herbs; calyx with simple trichomes; leaves non-revolute, margins various, membranaceous
                            14 Calyx usually with 5 prominent lobes (except for Clinopodium with rarely fused upper lobes).
                                                          28 Stamens ascending under the upper corolla lip, either included within the tube (or at least not clearly exserted beyond it).
                                                                     33 Stems often with swollen nodes (areas just below appear dark and sunken upon drying, except G. ladanum); hairs of the stem either exclusively hispid or short recurved and mixed with longer glandular trichomes; corolla 15-28 mm long
                                                                     33 Stems without swollen nodes; hairs of the stem finely and softly retrorse, generally lacking glandular hairs (though sessile glands may be present); corolla 5-14 mm long.

Key J2: woody angiosperms with opposite, simple leaves with toothed margins {add [Abelia] CAPRIFOLIACEAE}

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1 Leaves evergreen.
  2 Plant a shrub, erect, not requiring support.
    3 Leaves with spiny margins
    3 Leaves with crenate or serrate margins.
      4 Leaves slightly to strongly fleshy; inflorescence a head; [maritime situations]
      4 Leaves not fleshy; inflorescence either a head or otherwise; [collectively widespread].
        5 Leaves > 8 cm long, typically spotted with yellow, coarsely toothed; fruit a red drupe; [commonly cultivated, rarely seeding down nearby]
        5 Leaves < 8 cm long, not yellow-spotted, serrulate; fruit a capsule or purplish drupe; [plants native or cultivated].
          6 Inflorescence otherwise; [more widespread].
             7 Corolla tubular, campanulate, bilaterally symmetrical; fruit a 1-seeded achene (rarely produced)
             7 Corolla radially symmetrical, with 4-5 distinct petals; fruit a 2-10-seeded capsule or drupe.
               8 Fruit a 4-5-locular capsule, with 2 seeds per locule (though often fewer by abortion)
               8 Fruit a (2-) 3-locular, purplish-black drupe, with (2-) 3 single-seeded stones
  2 Plant a subshrub, creeping shrub, or liana.
                 9 Leaves spinose-serrate; [exotics, rarely naturalized]
                 9 Leaves serrate (not spinose), serrulate, or crenate; [exotics and natives, collectively widespread].
                   10 Leaves slightly to strongly fleshy; inflorescence a head; [maritime situations]
                   10 Leaves not fleshy; inflorescence otherwise; [collectively widespread].
                     11 Leaves on vigorous shoots with a few coarse rounded teeth towards the base (most leaves entire)
                     11 Leaves serrulate to serrate, the teeth uniformly around the margin or concentrated towards the tip; fruit dry, either indehiscent and 1-seeded or capsular and with several seeds.
                       12 Flowers 5-merous; petals fused; fruit indehiscent, 1-seeded; [montane, from e. TN, WV, and w. MD northwards in our area]
                       12 Flowers 4- or 5-merous; petals separate; fruit capsular, dehiscent, several-seeded; [collectively widespread in our area]
1 Leaves deciduous.
                          13 Leaves slightly to strongly fleshy; inflorescence a head, subtended by an involucre of phyllaries; [maritime situations]
                          13 Leaves not fleshy; inflorescence, flower, and fruit structure various, but not with the combination of features as above (sometimes the flowers in a head subtended by bracts, but then with other features differing, such as stamens 4, or green calyx present, or petals separate, or fruit a schizocarp of mericarps, etc.); [collectively widespread].
                              15 Stems not prickly; foliage smooth to variously hairy, but not scabrous.
                                16 Leaves on vigorous shoots with a few coarse rounded teeth towards the base (most leaves entire), the larger leaves < 3 cm wide; lianas climbing by twining; fruit a fleshy berry; flowers 5-merous, with a fused, tubular corolla
                                16 Leaves serrate, the teeth towards the leaf apex, the larger leaves > 4 cm wide; lianas climbing by adventitious roots; fruit a capsule; flowers 7-10-merous, with separate petals
                            14 Upright shrubs or trees, lacking any adaptations for climbing.
                                  17 Trees; leaves often a mix of alternate and opposite.
                                    18 Leaves harshly scabrous on the upper surface; fruit a multiple of achenes; leaf venation pinnate but irregular
                                    18 Leaves not scabrous; fruit a 2-4-seeded drupe; leaf venation neatly pinnate, the lateral veins nearly straight and parallel to one another
                                  17 Shrubs or trees; leaves strictly opposite (or often a mix of alternate and opposite in RHAMNACEAE).
                                       19 Trees; leaves palmately-veined, with 5 or more veins from the base; [rarely naturalizing]
                                       19 Shrubs; leaves either triple-veined from near the base or pinnate-veined; [collectively widespread and common]
                                         20 Leaves strongly triple-veined from at or near the base of the blade, the 2 lateral veins arching towards the tip and rejoining the midvein or nearly so (becoming diffuse before rejoining); petals 4, white; stamens 15-90
                                         20 Leaves pinnate-veined; petals various, not both 4 and white (except sometimes in Hydrangea); stamens 1-15 (except 15-30 in Exochorda in ROSACEAE).
                                           21 Inflorescence more diffuse, with internal axes and pedicels; flowers not both sympetalous and 4-lobed (except in Forsythia and Buddleja); fruit 1-seeded, 2-4-seeded, or 4-many-seeded.
                                               23 Corolla present; flowers larger, in terminal cymes, corymbs, racemes, panicles, or in axillary cymes or fascicles.
                                                    25 Petals separate; stamens 8-10 (-60) (or 4-6 in RHAMNACEAE and Euonymus in CELASTRACEAE).
                                                      26 Flowers 1 and terminal, or many, in terminal panicles or corymbs; stamens 8-10 (-60); stems brown, tan or gray.
                                                    25 Petals fused, at least basally, and often strongly tubular; stamens 2, 4, or 5.
                                                                                    40 Inflorescence various, but more diffuse, the flowers larger (> 5 mm in diameter, except for some flowers in Hydrangea in HYDRANGEACEAE) and loosely arranged (< 5 per cm of axis).
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