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Key N1: herbaceous dicots with mainly basal, compound leaves

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1 Leaves either 2-3-foliolate or palmately 4-11-foliolate (all the leaflets attached at a common point).
..2 Leaves 2-foliolate; fruit a capsule, opening by a circumscissile lid
..2 Leaves either 3-foliolate or palmately or pedately 4-11-foliolate.
....3 Inflorescence an involucrate head subtended by phyllaries, the heads solitary or many and variously arrayed in secondary inflorescences, the ovary inferior, the corolla connate and tubular at least basally, the calyx absent, the stamens 5, the fruit a cypsela
....3 Inflorescence, flower, and fruit structure various, but not with the combination of features as above.
......4 Inflorescence an umbel; ovary inferior; fruit a mericarp of 2 schizocarps
......4 Inflorescence various, usually not an umbel (sometimes an umbel in Oxalis in OXALIDACEAE); ovary superior; fruit an aggregate, legume, berry, or 2-valved capsule.
........5 Leaflets either entire or barely and very shallowly crenulate or notched at the tip (but otherwise entire).
..........6 Inflorescence a spadix, surrounded by a spathe; fruit a berry; [Monocots {illogically keyed here because of the likelihood of being mistaken for a dicot}]
..........6 Inflorescence a raceme or umbel, not surrounded by a spathe; fruit a capsule or legume; [Eudicots].
............ 7 Flowers bilaterally symmetrical; fruit a legume; [plant of uplands]
............ 7 Flowers radially symmetrical; fruit a 2-valved or 5-valved capsule; [plant of uplands or wetlands]
............ ..8 Leaflets not notched at the tip; flowers white; [plants of saturated saturated or ponded wetlands]
............ ..8 Leaflets notched at the tip; flowers pink, white, or yellow; [plants of uplands or temporarily flooded wetlands]
........5 Leaflets serrate, serrulate, or cleft.
............ ....9 Petals 4; stamens 6; fruit a silique
............ ....9 Petals 5 or more; stamens 10 or more; fruit either a legume or an aggregate of achenes or follicles
............ ......10 Stamens many, fused into a staminal tube; carpels 10-20, in a ring; pubescence stellate (sometimes mixed with simple hairs)
............ ......10 Stamens 10-many, separate, or fused but not all into a staminal tube; carpel either 1 (FABACEAE), or 3-7 in a ring (RANUNCULACEAE), or many and spirally arranged on a conical receptacle (RANUNCULACEAE or ROSACEAE)
............ ........11 Leaflets serrulate; flowers bilaterally symmetrical; fruit a legume; corolla variously colored, including white
............ ........11 Leaflets serrate; flowers radially symmetrical; fruit an aggregate of achenes or of follicles; corolla white or yellowish or greenish.
............ ..........12 Fruit an aggregate of follicles
............ ..........12 Fruit an aggregate of achenes (borne on a fleshy, expanded receptacle in Fragaria and some Potentilla)
............ ............ 13 Flowers lacking a hypanthium
............ ............ 13 Flowers with a hypanthium
1 Leaves 1-pinnately compound (all leaflets attached to a central rachis) or more complexly compound (with several orders of branching, some leaflets at least attached to second-order branches from the rachis).
............ ............ ..14 Leaves 1-pinnately compound (all leaflets attached to a central rachis).
............ ............ ....15 Inflorescence an involucrate head subtended by phyllaries, the heads solitary or many and variously arrayed in secondary inflorescences, the ovary inferior, the corolla connate and tubular at least basally, the calyx absent, the stamens 5, the fruit a cypsela
............ ............ ....15 Inflorescence, flower, and fruit structure various, but not with the combination of features as above.
............ ............ ......16 Flowers bilaterally symmetrical; fruit a legume
............ ............ ......16 Flowers radially symmetrical; fruit a silique/silicle, or a schizocarp of mericarps, or an achene.
............ ............ ........17 Petals 4; stamens 6; fruit a silique/silicle
............ ............ ........17 Petals 0 or 5 (if 0, the sepals petaloid); stamens 2, 4, 5, or many.
............ ............ ..........18 Stamens 5; fruit a schizocarp of 2 mericarps
............ ............ ..........18 Stamens 2, 4, or many; fruit an achene
............ ............ ..14 Leaves more complexly compound (with 2 or more orders of branching, some leaflets at least attached to second-order branches from the rachis).
............ ............ ............ 19 Inflorescence an involucrate head subtended by phyllaries, the heads solitary or many and variously arrayed in secondary inflorescences, the ovary inferior, the corolla connate and tubular at least basally, the calyx absent, the stamens 5, the fruit a cypsela
............ ............ ............ 19 Inflorescence, flower, and fruit structure various, but not with the combination of features as above (sometimes the flowers in a head subtended by bracts, but then with other features differing, such as stamens 4, or green calyx present, or petals separate, or fruit a schizocarp of mericarps, etc.).
............ ............ ............ ..20 Leaf segments or ultimate lobes linear or lanceolate, > 2× as long as wide, < 4 mm wide.
............ ............ ............ ....21 Inflorescence an umbel; ovary inferior; fruit a mericarp of 2 schizocarps
............ ............ ............ ....21 Inflorescence various, but not an umbel; ovary superior; fruit an aggregate of follicles or an elongate capsule.
............ ............ ............ ......22 Carpels 2, fused; fruit an elongate capsule; flowers bilaterally symmetrical
............ ............ ............ ......22 Carpels 5-10 or many, separate; fruit an aggregate; flower radially symmetrical
............ ............ ............ ..20 Leaf segments or ultimate lobes ovate or elliptic, < 3× as long as wide, > 5 mm wide.
............ ............ ............ ........23 Inflorescence an umbel; ovary inferior; fruit a mericarp of 2 schizocarps or a 5-seeded drupe.
............ ............ ............ ........23 Inflorescence various, but not an umbel; fruit an aggregate of follicles or achenes, an elongate capsule, or a naked seed resembling a drupe.
............ ............ ............ ............ 25 Leaflets with < 10 ultimate ‘points’ (lobe or tooth terminations), these rounded to broadly acute, often large in comparison to the leaflet and appearing as “sublobes”; pistil 1 or 4-many.
............ ............ ............ ............ ..26 Corolla bilaterally symmetrical; fruit an elongate capsule; [cultivated alien, rarely persistent near gardens]
............ ............ ............ ............ ..26 Corolla radially symmetrical; fruit an aggregate of follicles or achenes, or a naked seed resembling a drupe; [native plants of moist to dry forests and rock outcrops].
............ ............ ............ ............ ....27 Leaflets 5-8 cm long, obviously longer than broad; pistil 1; fruit a naked blue seed resembling a drupe; flowers mainly 3-merous
............ ............ ............ ............ ....27 Leaflets 1-6 cm long, about as long as broad if > 4 cm long; pistils 4-many; fruit an aggregate of follicles or achenes; flowers mainly 4-5-merous
............ ............ ............ ............ 25 Leaflets with >11 ultimate ‘points’ (lobe or tooth terminations), these acuminate to acute; pistils 1-8.
............ ............ ............ ............ ......28 Pubescence of the stem and lower leaf surface glandular; flowers unisexual, on the same plant (monoecious); stamens 10; pistils 2, partly fused; fruit an aggregate of follicles
............ ............ ............ ............ ......28 Pubescence of the stem and lower leaf surface non-glandular (or absent); flowers either bisexual (the plants hermaphroditic), or unisexual and the male and female flowers on separate plants (the plants dioecious); stamens 15 or more; pistils 1-8, separate; fruit an aggregate of follicles, a follicle, or a red or white berry.
............ ............ ............ ............ ........29 Flowers bisexual (plants hermaphroditic); carpels 1-8 per flower; inflorescence a raceme, or a panicle of racemes with just a few branches; fruit an aggregate of follicles, a follicle, or a red or white berry
............ ............ ............ ............ ........29 Flowers unisexual (plants dioecious); carpels 3-4 per pistillate flower; inflorescence a panicle of racemes, with numerous branches; fruit an aggregate of follicles

Key O: herbaceous dicots with alternate, compound leaves on the stem

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1 Leaves either 3-foliolate or palmately 4-11-foliolate (all the leaflets attached at a common point, or the leaflets slightly pedate in Helleborus in RANUNCULACEAE).
..2 Inflorescence an involucrate head subtended by phyllaries, the heads solitary or many and variously arrayed in secondary inflorescences, the ovary inferior, the corolla connate and tubular at least basally, the calyx absent, the stamens 5, the fruit a cypsela
..2 Inflorescence, flower, and fruit structure various, but not with the combination of features as above. {add under 2b [Cynosciadium] APIACEAE; [Cannabis] CANNABACEAE}
....3 Leaflets obviously and sharply serrate; pistils 5-many; fruit an aggregate of achenes, drupelets, or follicles.
......4 Leaflets 7-11, slightly pedate in their arrangement, evergreen
......4 Leaflets 3-5, palmate, deciduous
....3 Leaflets entire, finely denticulate, or very obscurely toothed (or irregularly serrate or lobed in Cardamine in BRASSICACEAE); pistil 1; fruit simple, a legume, capsule, silique, or berry.
........5 Corolla bilaterally symmetrical; petals 5; fruit a legume; carpel 1
........5 Corolla radially symmetrical; petals 4 or 5; fruit either an elongate capsule or a berry; carpels 1, 2, or 5.
..........6 Leaflets radially arranged at the summit of the petiole, not differentiated in size or placement into a terminal leaflet and 2 lateral leaflets; leaflets prominently notched at the apex; petals 5, yellow; inflorescence axillary, cymose or umbelliform; carpels 5
..........6 Leaflets differentiated in size and placement into a terminal leaflet and 2 or more lateral leaflets; leaflets not regularly notched at the apex (a few may be slightly retuse); petals 4, white, pink, or yellow; inflorescence terminal and racemose; carpels 1 or 2.
............ 7 Carpels 2; fruit a red berry; petals connate, purplish-blue
............ 7 Carpel 1; fruit a capsule; petals separate, white, pink, or yellow.
............ ..8 Stem leaves 1-3, alternate [or whorled or opposite]; leaflets 3, irregularly serrate, lacerate, or additionally divided or lobed; fruit a silique; carpels 2
............ ..8 Stem leaves >3, alternate; leaflets (1-) 3-7, each entire or obscurely toothed; fruit a capsule; carpel 1
1 Leaves either 1-pinnately compound (all leaflets attached to a central rachis) or more complexly compound (with several orders of branching, some leaflets at least attached to second-order branches from the rachis).
............ ....9 Inflorescence an involucrate head subtended by phyllaries, heads solitary or many, variously arrayed in secondary inflorescences; fruit a cypsela; ovary inferior
............ ....9 Inflorescence various, but not as above; fruit various, not as above; ovary superior.
............ ......10 Leaves 1-pinnately compound (all leaflets attached to a central rachis).
............ ........11 Flowers bilaterally symmetrical, papilionaceous; fruit a legume; leaves even-pinnately or odd-pinnately compound, the terminal leaflet sometimes replaced by a tendril; leaflets entire or at most minutely denticulate
............ ........11 Flowers radially symmetrical (or barely bilaterally symmetrical in Erodium in GERANIACEAE); fruit a capsule, capsular but of 5 mericarps, or an aggregate of achenes, nutlets, or follicles (in some cases the # of pistils from many down to 2 or even 1); leaves odd-pinnately compound, never with tendrils; leaflets serrate (or entire to shallowly lobed in Polemonium in POLEMONIACEAE, Cardamine in BRASSICACEAE, and Floerkea in LIMNANTHACEAE).
............ ..........12 Pistils many (only 1-2 in Agrimonia, Poteridium, Poterium, and Sanguisorba); fruit an aggregate of achenes, nutlets, or follicles; hypanthium present; stamens 5-many (only 4 in Poteridium and Sanguisorba)
............ ..........12 Pistil 1 (or deeply 2-3-lobed in Floerkea in LIMNANTHACEAE); fruit a silique, capsule, schizocarp of 2-3 mericarps, or a capsular schizocarp of 5 mericarps (Erodium in GERANIACEAE); hypanthium absent; stamens 3-6.
............ ............ ..14 Petals 4, distinct; stamens 6; inflorescence a terminal raceme; fruit a silique/silicle
............ ............ ..14 Petals 5, fused (distinct in Erodium in GERANIACEAE); stamens 5; inflorescence axillary or terminal, cymose, consisting of subcapitate, umbel-like, or helicoid cymes; fruit either a capsule, or a capsular schizocarp of 5 mericarps (Erodium in GERANIACEAE).
............ ............ ....15 Flowers slightly bilaterally symmetrical (2 of the petals of different size than the other 3); fruit a capsular schizocarp of 5 mericarps; carpels 5
............ ............ ....15 Flowers radially symmetrical; fruit either a loculicidal capsule or a berry; carpels 2 or 3.
............ ............ ......16 Fruit a berry; fresh plant rankly fragrant
............ ............ ......16 Fruit a capsule; fresh plant not aromatic.
............ ............ ........17 Capsule 2-valvate; carpels 2; leaflets prominently serrate or with some tooth-like sublobes
............ ............ ........17 Capsule 3-valvate; carpels 3; leaflets with entire margins
............ ......10 Leaves more complexly compound (with 2 or more orders of branching, some leaflets at least attached to second-order branches from the rachis).
............ ............ ..........18 Leaves 2× even-pinnate; flowers in spikes or spherical heads; {XXXX}
............ ............ ..........18 Leaves either 2× odd-pinnate or more complexly 2-4× ternately or ternately-pinnately compound; {YYYY}.
............ ............ ............ 19 Leaf segments linear, less than 2 mm wide.
............ ............ ............ ..20 Inflorescence an umbel; ovary inferior, of 2 fused carpels; fruit a schizocarp of 2 mericarps
............ ............ ............ ..20 Inflorescence either a terminal solitary flower or terminal raceme or panicle; ovary superior, either of 2 fused carpels or of 1-5or many distinct 1-carpellate pistils; fruit either a capsule or an aggregate of follicles or achenes.
............ ............ ............ ....21 Ovary of 2 fused carpels; fruit a capsule (1-seeded and indehiscent in Fumaria)
............ ............ ............ ....21 Ovary of 1-5or many distinct 1-carpellate pistils; fruit an aggregate of follicles or achenes
............ ............ ............ 19 Leaf segments broader, lanceolate, ovate, or elliptic, > 5 mm wide.
............ ............ ............ ......22 Herbaceous vine climbing by axillary tendrils; stamens 8
............ ............ ............ ......22 Erect or sprawling herb; stamens 5-6 or >15.
............ ............ ............ ........23 Leaflets sharply serrate, with usually many teeth on each leaflet side, the total number of “points” per leaflet > 10.
............ ............ ............ ..........24 Inflorescence an umbel; ovary inferior, of 2 fused carpels; fruit a schizocarp of 2 mericarps; inflorescence an umbel
............ ............ ............ ..........24 Inflorescence a panicle or raceme; ovary superior, of 1-8 carpels; fruit an aggregate of follicles, a single follicle, or an indeshiscent berry-like fruit.
............ ............ ............ ............ 25 Flowers bisexual; carpels 1-8; fruit an aggregate of follicles, a single follicle, or an indeshiscent berry-like fruit
............ ............ ............ ............ 25 Flowers unisexual; carpels (in pistillate flowers) of 3 (-5) carpels; fruit an aggregate of follicles
............ ............ ............ ........23 Leaflets entire, or with 1-several, broad, obtuse, rounded, or broadly acute “sublobes”, especially towards the tip of the leaflet, the total number of “points” per leaflet < 10.
............ ............ ............ ............ ..26 Inflorescence an umbel; ovary inferior, of 2 fused carpels; fruit a schizocarp of 2 mericarps
............ ............ ............ ............ ..26 Inflorescence a raceme, panicle, or cyme; ovary superior, of either 1-2 fused carpels or of many separate 1-carpellate pistils.
............ ............ ............ ............ ....27 Perianth bilaterally symmetrical, the corolla of 4 fused petals; plant a scandent vine or erect or sprawling herb
............ ............ ............ ............ ....27 Perianth radially symmetrical, of 1-5 whorls of separate perianth parts; plant an erect herb.
............ ............ ............ ............ ......28 Perianth of 4-5 whorls of 3 parts each (some of the whorls modified into nectaries); pistil 1, 1-carpellate; fruit a drupelike, blue, naked seed; largest leaflets > 6 cm long, obviously longer than wide
............ ............ ............ ............ ......28 Perianth of 1 whorl; of 4-5 parts; pistils many, each 1-carpellate; fruit an aggregate of achenes or an aggregate of follicles; largest leaflets either < 6 cm long, or if longer than 6 cm, also about as wide as long

Key to Brassicaceae, Key A: plants in flower, trichomes of plant absent or, if present, unbranched

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1 Flowers (all, or at least many) solitary on scapes
1 Flowers in racemes.
..2 Flowers yellow.
....3 Leaves auriculate, sagittate, or amplexicaul at base.
......4 Upper stems glaucous.
........5 Petals 6-30 mm long, clawed
........5 Petals 2-4 mm long, not clawed
......4 Upper stems green.
..........6 Stems angular distally; blooming Apr to early Jun
..........6 Stems not angular distally; blooming Apr to Oct
....3 Leaves not clasping at base.
............ 7 Petals with contrasting dark yellow, brown, maroon, or purple veins; [tribe Brassiceae]
............ ..8 Petals yellow; basal leaves with 3-10 lobes per margin; stems usually sparsely to densely hispid basally; cauline leaf blades usually lobed (but fewer than basal leaves)
............ ..8 Petals yellow or creamy white; basal leaves with 1-4 lobes per margin; stems sparsely to densely pubescent; cauline leaf blades often undivided
............ 7 Petals mostly uniform in color.
............ ....9 Ovaries and young fruits 2-segmented; petals 5-30 mm long; [tribe Brassiceae]
............ ......10 Stem leafes pinnatifid
............ ......10 Stem leaves entire, serrate, or sinuate
............ ........11 Valves of the fruit 1-veined; sepals erect or ascending (rarely spreading); terminal segment of fruit conic, usually seedless
............ ........11 Valves of the fruit 3-7-veined (1-veined in Rhamphospermum nigrum); sepals spreading to reflexed; terminal segment of fruit either linear or ensiform (flattened and 2-edged).
............ ..........12 Terminal segment of fruit linear 0.1-1.6 cm long, seedless or 1-seeded.
............ ..........12 Terminal segment of fruit ensiform (flattened and 2-edged), (1-) 1.5-2.5 (-3) cm long, seedless
............ ....9 Ovaries and young fruits unsegmented; petals 1-8 mm long.
............ ............ 13 Inflorescence leafy bracteate (most of the pedicels subtended by bracts)
............ ............ 13 Inflorescence not bracteate (occasionally with some lower pedicels bearing bracts).
............ ............ ..14 Stigmas distinctly 2-lobed; [tribe Sisymbrieae]
............ ............ ..14 Stigmas entire, rarely indistinctly 2-lobed; [tribe Cardamineae]
..2 Flowers white, cream, pinkish, purple, lavender, or blue.
............ ............ ....15 Leaves strictly basal, or both basal and cauline and also auriculate.
............ ............ ......16 Plants with only basal leaves or cauline leaves much reduced.
............ ............ ........17 Plants annual; flowers zygomorphic; petals 0.5-2.5 mm long; [tribe Iberideae]
............ ............ ........17 Plants annual or perennial; flowers actinomorphic; petals absent, rudimentary, or to 16 mm long; [tribe Cardamineae]
............ ............ ......16 Plants with some well-developed cauline leaves.
............ ............ ..........18 Ovaries and young fruits ovate, orbicular or cordate.
............ ............ ............ 19 Ovules 1 per ovary; [tribe Calepineae]
............ ............ ............ ..20 Ovules 2 (rarely 4) per ovary; [tribe Lepidieae]
............ ............ ............ ....21 Leaves mostly entire; plants not fetid; [tribe Noccaeeae]
............ ............ ............ ....21 Leaves often toothed; plants fetid; [tribe Thlaspideae]
............ ............ ..........18 Ovaries and young fruits linear.
............ ............ ............ ......22 Plants aquatic or semi-aquatic; rooting at nodes; [tribe Cardamineae]
............ ............ ............ ......22 Plants terrestrial, though sometimes growing partially submerged; not rooting at nodes.
............ ............ ............ ........23 Flowers blue, rarely pink or white; petals 12-32 mm long; [tribe Brassiceae]
............ ............ ............ ........23 Flowers white, sometimes pink or purple; petals <16 mm long.
............ ............ ............ ..........24 Petals larger, conspicuous, 7-16 mm long.
............ ............ ............ ............ 25 Cauline leaves simple or pinnately to palmately compound, typically not auriculate; if simple and auriculate, then plants usually with a mix of compound and simple cauline leaves and the simple leaves ovate or oblong and never deeply pinnatifid (as in C. clematitis)
............ ............ ............ ............ 25 Cauline leaves conspicuously or slightly auriculate, always simple; blades elliptic, lanceolate, ovate, or oblong, deeply pinnatifid to entire
............ ............ ............ ............ ..26 Basal leaves oblanceolate, unlobed; petals white to cream
............ ............ ............ ............ ..26 Basal leaves incised or lyrate-lobed; petals white to pinkish-purple
............ ............ ............ ..........24 Petals smaller, inconspicuous, < 7 mm long.
............ ............ ............ ............ ....27 Cauline leaves sessile; [tribe Boechereae]
............ ............ ............ ............ ....27 Cauline leaves usually petiolate; [tribe Cardamineae]
............ ............ ....15 Leaves basal and cauline but not auriculate.
............ ............ ............ ............ ......28 Plants aquatic, rooting at nodes; [tribe Cardamineae].
............ ............ ............ ............ ........29 Submersed leaves dissected into filiform segments
............ ............ ............ ............ ......28 Plants terrestrial, though sometimes growing partially submersed; not rooting at nodes.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 31 Ovaries and young fruits linear; [tribe Cardamineae]
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 31 Ovaries and young fruits ovate, orbicular or cordate.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..32 Flowers zygomorphic; filaments appendaged; [tribe Iberideae]
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..32 Flowers actinomorphic; filaments not appendaged; [tribe Lepidieae]
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......34 Ovaries and young fruits 2-segmented; [tribe Brassiceae]
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........35 Ovaries and young fruits ovate, orbicular or cordate; [tribe Lepidieae]
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..38 Leaves smelling of garlic when crushed, reniform or cordate, dentate; [tribe Thlaspideae]
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..38 Leaves not smelling of garlic, rarely reniform or cordate, with margins various.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....39 Cauline leaves usually petiolate; [tribe Cardamineae].

Key to Brassicaceae, Key C: plants in fruit, trichomes of plant absent or, if present, unbranched

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1 Fruits silicles (< 3× as long as wide).
..2 Fruits 2-segmented
....3 Plants succulent, leaves usually fleshy
....3 Plants herbaceous, not succulent, leaves not fleshy
..2 Fruits unsegmented.
......4 Fruits 2 cm or more wide
......4 Fruits < 2 cm wide.
........5 Fruits with 20 or more seeds
........5 Fruits with 16 or fewer seeds.
..........6 Fruits with 1 seed.
............ 7 Plants > 5 dm tall
..........6 Fruits with 2-16 seeds.
............ ..8 Fruits with 2 seeds
............ ..8 Fruits with more than 2 seeds.
............ ....9 Leaves pinnately lobed
............ ......10 Stems 5-12 (-20) dm tall; leaf blades of basal leaves (3-) 5-12 (-17) cm long
............ ......10 Stems 0.5-1.5 (-2) dm tall; leaf blades of basal leaves 0.3-1.5 (-2) cm long
............ ....9 Leaves not lobed.
............ ........11 Plants not fetid; seeds usually smooth, yellowish to medium brown
............ ........11 Plants fetid; seeds striate or alveolate, dark gray to dark brown or black
1 Fruits siliques (> 3× as long as wide).
............ ..........12 Fruits indehiscent or breaking into 1-seeded segments.
............ ............ 13 Fruits not segmented, 1-seeded
............ ............ 13 Fruits segmented, usually more than 1-seeded.
............ ............ ..14 Styles obsolete; plants glabrous; [coastal]
............ ............ ..14 Styles 1-5 mm; plants pubescent; [inland]
............ ..........12 Fruits dehiscent, more than 1-seeded.
............ ............ ......16 Cauline leaf blade bases auriculate (except B. juncea); terminal silique segment seedless (rarely 1-2-seeded), conic
............ ............ ......16 Cauline leaf blade bases not auriculate; terminal silique segment 1-5-seeded (sometimes 0).
............ ............ ........17 Fruit valves 3-7-veined.
............ ............ ..........18 Valves of the fruit 3-5 (-7) veined.
............ ............ ............ 19 Terminal segment of fruit linear 0.1-1.6 cm long, seedless or 1-seeded.
............ ............ ............ 19 Terminal segment of fruit ensiform (flattened and 2-edged), (1-) 1.5-2.5 (-3) cm long, seedless
............ ............ ............ ..20 Fruits (all, or at least some) solitary, borne on scapes
............ ............ ............ ....21 Fruits latiseptate (flattened parallel to the septum).
............ ............ ............ ......22 Replums strongly flattened; fruit valves dehiscing elastically, coiled
............ ............ ............ ......22 Replums terete; fruit valves not dehiscing elastically or coiled.
............ ............ ............ ........23 Seeds winged at least distally.
............ ............ ............ ............ 25 Plants aquatic or semi-aquatic; rooting at nodes
............ ............ ............ ............ 25 Plants terrestrial, though rarely growing partially submersed; not rooting at nodes.
............ ............ ............ ............ ..26 Fresh leaves smelling of garlic when crushed, reniform or cordate, dentate
............ ............ ............ ............ ..26 Fresh leaves not smelling of garlic when crush, rarely reniform or cordate, dentate or not.
............ ............ ............ ............ ......28 Stigma lobes sometimes distinct but not decurrent.
............ ............ ............ ............ ..........30 Cauline leaves spaced, not concealing stem, spreading to slightly ascending; petals 7-12 mm long
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 31 Basal leaves obovate to oblanceolate, unlobed; cauline leaves entire; siliques 8-13 cm long
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 31 Basal leaves incised or lyrate-lobed; cauline leaves with dentate to serrate margins; siliques 2-4 cm long
............ ............ ............ ............ ..........30 Cauline leaves usually ascendant and concealing stems (at least basally); petals 2-5 mm long (except for 5-10 mm long in B. missouriensis)
............ ............ ............ ............ ........29 Lower cauline leaves pinnatifid or pinnatisect.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..32 Terminal leaflet lobes nearly entire to crenate or undulate
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..32 Terminal leaflet lobes sharply toothed or cut
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....33 Basal leaves usually withered by flowering; cauline leaf lobes entire to lyrately lobed; usually petals white to pink; [native of riparian habitats]
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....33 Basal leaves usually present at flowering or after; cauline leaves with linear, filiform, lyrate, or runcinate lobes (occasionally unlobed, but if so then leaves usually linear or otherwise thin); petals yellow; [non-natives of various habitats]
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