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Key to Sapindaceae

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1 Leaves opposite; leaves either palmately compound, or simple (and then palmately lobed and/or toothed), or pinnately compound.
  2 Leaves either simple (and palmately lobed and/or toothed) or pinnately compound; flowers radially symmetrical; fruit a schizocarp of 2 samaroid mericarps; [subfamily Hippocastanoideae, tribe Acereae]
  2 Leaves palmately compound; flowers bilaterally symmetrical; fruit a capsule, usually with single large “nut-like” seed; [subfamily Hippocastaoideae, tribe Hippocastaneae]
1 Leaves alternate; leaves compound (if unifoliolate and thus appearing simple [Dodonaea], then unlobed and with entire margins).
    3 Leaves unifoliolate, appearing simple; [subfamily Dodonaeoideae, tribe Dodonaeae]
    3 Leaves compound.
      4 Herbaceous vines or lianas; leaves 3-foliolate or otherwise compound (biternately or pinnately compound); [subfamily Sapindoideae, tribe Paullinieae]
        5 Leaves 3-foliolate
        5 Leaves pinnately to biternately compound.
          6 Fruit a schizocarp with 3 winged mericarps; seeds lacking a pseudohilum
          6 Fruit an inflated, papery capsule; seeds with a white or pale tan heart-shaped or kidney-shaped mark (pseudohilum)
      4 Tree or shrub; leaves 3-foliolate or pinnately or bipinnately compound.
             7 Leaves palmately 3-foliolate; [subfamily Dodonaeoideae, tribe Doratoxyleae]
             7 Leaves pinnately or bipinnately compound, with 5 or more leaflets.
                 9 Fruits 1 (-2)-coccate, with (1-) 2 rudimentary cocci, tardily schizocarpic, separating into indehiscent globose mericarps, with fleshy pericarp containing much saponin; seeds globose, lacking an aril
                 9 Fruits ellipsoid or nearly globose, usually with a single locule; seeds arillate or sarcotestal.
                   10 Leaves with (4) 8-10 (-18) leaflets; fruits light brown; seeds with a thin, translucent-white, fleshy aril, easily removable to show a shiny dark brown testa
                   10 Leaves with (2-) 4 leaflets; fruits green; seeds with a fleshy testa; petals usually with 2 marginal projections or appendages on or above the base, or lacking appendages
               8 Fruits dehiscent, a capsule with papery, membranaceous, coriaceous, or woody valves.
                     11 Leaves mostly odd-pinnate (with a definite terminal leaflet); [subfamily Sapindoideae, tribe Koelreuterieae]
                       12 Petals yellow; capsules papery or crustaceous, inflated (the capsule wall , with incomplete septae; seeds < 7 mm in diameter; [non-native, collectively widespread in our region]
                       12 Petals pink; capsules coriaceous, the capsule wall closely invested around the seeds, with complete septae; seeds 10-15 mm in diameter; [native, TX]
                          13 Leaflet margins serrate; [subfamily Sapindoideae, tribe Cupanieae]
                            14 Locule 2- to several-seeded; [subfamily Dodonaeoideae, tribe Dodonaeae]

Key O: herbaceous dicots with alternate, compound leaves on the stem

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1 Leaves either 3-foliolate or palmately 4-11-foliolate (all the leaflets attached at a common point, or the leaflets slightly pedate in Helleborus foetidus in RANUNCULACEAE).
  2 Inflorescence an involucrate head subtended by phyllaries, the heads solitary or many and variously arrayed in secondary inflorescences, the ovary inferior, the corolla connate and tubular at least basally, the calyx absent, the stamens 5, the fruit a cypsela
  2 Inflorescence, flower, and fruit structure various, but not with the combination of features as above. {add under 2b [Cynosciadium] APIACEAE}
    3 Leaflets obviously and sharply serrate; pistils 1 or 5-many; fruit an achene, or an aggregate of achenes, drupelets, or follicles.
      4 Leaflets 7-11, slightly pedate in their arrangement, evergreen
        5 Pistils 5-many; fruit an aggregate of achenes, drupelets, or follicles
    3 Leaflets entire, finely denticulate, or very obscurely toothed (or irregularly serrate or lobed in Cardamine in BRASSICACEAE); pistil 1; fruit simple, a legume, capsule, silique, or berry.
          6 Corolla bilaterally symmetrical; petals 5; fruit a legume; carpel 1
          6 Corolla radially symmetrical; petals 4 or 5; fruit either an elongate capsule or a berry; carpels 1, 2, or 5.
             7 Leaflets radially arranged at the summit of the petiole, not differentiated in size or placement into a terminal leaflet and 2 lateral leaflets; leaflets prominently notched at the apex; petals 5, yellow; inflorescence axillary, cymose or umbelliform; carpels 5
             7 Leaflets differentiated in size and placement into a terminal leaflet and 2 or more lateral leaflets; leaflets not regularly notched at the apex (a few may be slightly retuse); petals 4, white, pink, or yellow; inflorescence terminal and racemose; carpels 1 or 2.
               8 Carpels 2; fruit a red berry; petals connate, purplish-blue
               8 Carpel 1; fruit a capsule; petals separate, white, pink, or yellow.
                 9 Stem leaves 1-3, alternate [or whorled or opposite]; leaflets 3, irregularly serrate, lacerate, or additionally divided or lobed; fruit a silique; carpels 2
                 9 Stem leaves >3, alternate; leaflets (1-) 3-7, each entire or obscurely toothed; fruit a capsule; carpel 1
1 Leaves either 1-pinnately compound (all leaflets attached to a central rachis) or more complexly compound (with several orders of branching, some leaflets at least attached to second-order branches from the rachis).
                   10 Inflorescence an involucrate head subtended by phyllaries, heads solitary or many, variously arrayed in secondary inflorescences; fruit a cypsela; ovary inferior
                   10 Inflorescence various, but not as above; fruit various, not as above; ovary superior.
                     11 Leaves 1-pinnately compound (all leaflets attached to a central rachis).
                       12 Flowers bilaterally symmetrical, papilionaceous; fruit a legume; leaves even-pinnately or odd-pinnately compound, the terminal leaflet sometimes replaced by a tendril; leaflets entire or at most minutely denticulate
                       12 Flowers radially symmetrical (or barely bilaterally symmetrical in Erodium in GERANIACEAE); fruit a capsule, capsular but of 5 mericarps, or an aggregate of achenes, nutlets, or follicles (in some cases the # of pistils from many down to 2 or even 1); leaves odd-pinnately compound, never with tendrils; leaflets serrate (or entire to shallowly lobed in Polemonium in POLEMONIACEAE, Cardamine in BRASSICACEAE, and Floerkea in LIMNANTHACEAE).
                          13 Pistils many (only 1-2 in Agrimonia, Poteridium, Poterium, and Sanguisorba); fruit an aggregate of achenes, nutlets, or follicles; hypanthium present; stamens 5-many (only 4 in Poteridium and Sanguisorba)
                          13 Pistil 1 (or deeply 2-3-lobed in Floerkea in LIMNANTHACEAE); fruit a silique, capsule, schizocarp of 2-3 mericarps, or a capsular schizocarp of 5 mericarps (Erodium in GERANIACEAE); hypanthium absent; stamens 3-6.
                              15 Petals 5, fused (distinct in Erodium in GERANIACEAE); stamens 5; inflorescence axillary or terminal, cymose, consisting of subcapitate, umbel-like, or helicoid cymes; fruit either a capsule, or a capsular schizocarp of 5 mericarps (Erodium in GERANIACEAE).
                                16 Flowers slightly bilaterally symmetrical (2 of the petals of different size than the other 3); fruit a capsular schizocarp of 5 mericarps; carpels 5
                                16 Flowers radially symmetrical; fruit either a loculicidal capsule or a berry; carpels 2 or 3.
                     11 Leaves more complexly compound (with 2 or more orders of branching, some leaflets at least attached to second-order branches from the rachis).
                                       19 Leaves either 2× odd-pinnate or more complexly 2-4× ternately or ternately-pinnately compound; flowers in various inflorescences; fruits various (not legumes or loments).
                                           21 Inflorescence either a terminal solitary flower or terminal raceme or panicle; ovary superior, either of 2 fused carpels or of 1-5or many distinct 1-carpellate pistils; fruit either a capsule or an aggregate of follicles or achenes.
                                             22 Ovary of 1-5or many distinct 1-carpellate pistils; fruit an aggregate of follicles or achenes
                                                 24 Leaflets sharply serrate, with usually many teeth on each leaflet side, the total number of “points” per leaflet > 10.
                                                 24 Leaflets entire, or with 1-several, broad, obtuse, rounded, or broadly acute “sublobes”, especially towards the tip of the leaflet, the total number of “points” per leaflet < 10.
                                                            29 Perianth of 4-5 whorls of 3 parts each (some of the whorls modified into nectaries); pistil 1, 1-carpellate; fruit a drupelike, blue, naked seed; largest leaflets > 6 cm long, obviously longer than wide
                                                            29 Perianth of 1 whorl; of 4-5 parts; pistils many, each 1-carpellate; fruit an aggregate of achenes or an aggregate of follicles; largest leaflets either < 6 cm long, or if longer than 6 cm, also about as wide as long
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