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Key G5: shrubs and subshrubs with alternate, simple, unlobed, toothed leaves

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1 Subshrubs or dwarf shrubs, aboveground stems creeping or erect, < 15 cm tall; leaves evergreen.
..2 Leaves 1.5-3 cm wide, coarsely toothed; flowers lacking sepals and petals; [alien species, sparingly naturalized or spreading in suburban situations]
..2 Leaves < 1.5 cm wide, finely toothed or entire; flowers with sepals and petals; [native species, collectively widespread and common].
....3 Leaves fleshy, terete in ×-section; petals 5, bright pink
....3 Leaves flat, not fleshy; petals white or pale pink.
......4 Leaves < 2.5 mm wide; corolla with petals distinct; plant creeping
......4 Leaves > 5 mm wide; corolla with petals fused (distinct in Chimaphila); plant creeping or erect
1 Shrubs, aboveground stems erect, > 30 cm tall; leaves evergreen or deciduous.
........5 Inflorescence an involucrate head subtended by phyllaries, the heads solitary or many and variously arrayed in secondary inflorescences, the ovary inferior, the corolla connate and tubular at least basally, the calyx absent, the stamens 5, the fruit a cypsela
........5 Inflorescence, flower, and fruit structure various, but not with the combination of features as above.
..........6 Leaves evergreen. {add to 6a Ardisia in PRIMULACEAE, Rhaphiolepis in ROSACEAE, Camellia in THEACEAE}
............ 7 Leaves glandular-punctate on one or both surfaces with golden-yellow glands; flowers unisexual, lacking a perianth; fruit a pale gray, waxy drupe with a single seed
............ 7 Leaves not glandular punctate; flowers bisexual or unisexual, with a white, pink, or yellow perianth; fruit various, a red, blue, or black drupe or berry with several seeds, or a capsule.
............ ..8 Petals connate and urceolate, white to pale pink; flowers bisexual; leaves ovate, lanceolate, or elliptic, broadest near the middle or towards the base, the teeth well-distributed along most of the margin on either side; fruit either a capsule or a red, blue, or black berry
............ ..8 Petals distinct, yellow or white; flowers unisexual or bisexual; leaves oblanceolate or elliptic, broadest towards the tip or near the middle, the teeth usually concentrated in the upper half of the leaf; fruit either a black or red drupe with several pyrenes, a red berry with several seeds, or red or black pomes.
............ ....9 Plants with nodal, simple or tripartite thorns; flowers bisexual, with a yellow perianth; fruit a red berry with several seeds
............ ....9 Plants lacking thorns; flowers unisexual or bisexual, with a white perianth; fruit either a black or red drupe with several pyrenes or a red or black pome.
............ ......10 Flowers unisexual; fruit a black or red drupe with several pyrenes
............ ......10 Flowers bisexual; fruit a red or black pome
..........6 Leaves deciduous.
............ ........11 Plants with nodal, simple or tripartite thorns; leaf teeth spinulose
............ ........11 Plants lacking thorns; leaf teeth acute, blunt, rounded, or callus-tipped, but not spinulose.
............ ..........12 Leaves crenate-wavy, with 1-2 teeth per cm of leaf margin; leaves usually obliquely cordate or angled-truncate at the base; pubescence of leaves and stems stellate
............ ..........12 Leaves crenulate, serrate or serrulate, with >2 teeth per cm of leaf margin; leaves cuneate, rounded, or subcordate at base, not oblique; pubescence of leaves and stems absent or simple.
............ ............ 13 Leaves prominently 3-veined from the base.
............ ............ ..14 Ovary 5-locular; stamens many or 5, fused or separate; fruit a 5-valved capsule or of 5 mericarps; flowers yellow or pink, or white with a pink blaze
............ ............ ..14 Ovary 3-locular; stamens 5, separate; fruit a 3-valved capsule or drupe; flowers white or pale green
............ ............ 13 Leaves pinnately veined.
............ ............ ....15 Flowers in catkins; perianth absent or very small; fruit a 1-seeded nut, samara, or waxy drupe (capsule in Salix in SALICACEAE).
............ ............ ......16 Leaves > 4 cm wide, lacking punctate glands; fruit a 1-seeded nut or samara
............ ............ ......16 Leaves < 3 cm wide, either punctate-glandular on one or both surfaces or lacking punctate glands; fruit a 1-seeded waxy drupe or a capsule.
............ ............ ........17 Leaves punctate-glandular on one or both surfaces; fruit a 1-seeded waxy drupe.
............ ............ ........17 Leaves lacking punctate glands; fruit a capsule.
............ ............ ....15 Flowers arrayed variously, but not in catkins; perianth present, conspicuous; fruit a 1-many-seeded capsule, pome, berry, or follicle.
............ ............ ..........18 Ovary inferior; fruit fleshy and indehiscent, a berry or pome.
............ ............ ............ 19 Fruit a berry; leaves lacking stipules
............ ............ ............ 19 Fruit a pome; leaves usually prominently stipular
............ ............ ..........18 Ovary superior; fruit either dry and dehiscent, a capsule or an aggregate of follicles or achenes, or fleshy and indehiscent, a drupe with 4-8 pyrenes.
............ ............ ............ ..20 Flower apocarpous; fruit an aggregate of follicles or achenes
............ ............ ............ ..20 Flower syncarpous; fruit either a capsule or a fleshy drupe.
............ ............ ............ ....21 Ovary 1-carpellate; fruit a 1-seeded drupe
............ ............ ............ ....21 Ovary 2-8-carpellate; fruit either a capsule or a drupe with 4-8 pyrenes
............ ............ ............ ......22 Ovary 2-8-locular; fruit fleshy and indehiscent, a drupe with 2-8 pyrenes; flowers mostly functionally unisexual (or sometimes bisexual in RHAMNACEAE).
............ ............ ............ ........23 Petals connate at the base; stamens alternate to the petals and opposite to the sepals; fruit 4-8-locular, with 4-8 pyrenes
............ ............ ............ ........23 Petals separate (or absent in Rhamnus alnifolia); stamens opposite to the petals (when present) and alternate to the sepals; fruit 2-4-locular, with 2-4 pyrenes
............ ............ ............ ......22 Ovary 2-3- or 5-locular; fruit dry and dehiscent, a capsule; flowers bisexual (except Stillingia in EUPHORBIACEAE).
............ ............ ............ ..........24 Ovary and capsule 5-locular; stamens 10-many.
............ ............ ............ ............ 25 Stamens 10; corolla urceolate, sympetalous
............ ............ ............ ............ 25 Stamens many; corolla spreading, apopetalous
............ ............ ............ ..........24 Ovary and capsule 2-3-locular; stamens 2, 5, or 10.
............ ............ ............ ............ ..26 Leaves > 5× as long as wide; stamens 2; ovary and capsule 3-locular; [plants of the Coastal Plain of SC, GA, AL, and FL]
............ ............ ............ ............ ..26 Leaves < 3× as long as wide; stamens 5 or 10; ovary and capsule 2-3-locular; [plants collectively widespread].
............ ............ ............ ............ ....27 Stamens 5; ovary and capsule 2-locular; leaves elliptic (widest near the middle), the teeth fine (usually > 5 points per cm of margin), and along much of the margin; inflorescence a terminal raceme; hairs of the lower leaf surface simple, erect
............ ............ ............ ............ ....27 Stamens 10; ovary and capsule 3-locular; leaves obovate (widest towards the apex), the teeth obscure to coarse (usually < 4 points per cm of margin), and primarily in the upper half of the leaf; inflorescence a terminal or axillary raceme or cyme; hairs of the lower leaf surface either simple and appressed, or stellate.
............ ............ ............ ............ ......28 Leaf margins regularly and evenly serrate in the upper half of the leaf (usually nearly entire towards the base); inflorescence an elongate, many flowered (>30) raceme borne at the end of branchlets of the season; corolla of separate petals, the stamens separate; hairs of the lower leaf surface simple and appressed
............ ............ ............ ............ ......28 Leaf margins wavy or irregularly dentate, mainly in the upper half of the leaf; inflorescence a few flowered (<20) axillary raceme, cyme, or cluster; corolla fused basally into a tube, the stamens adnate to the tube; hairs of the lower leaf surface stellate
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