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Key to Crassulaceae

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1 Leaves connate at the base, opposite; flowers solitary in the axils of leaves; flowers 3-4-merous; [subfamily Crassuloideae]
1 Leaves distinct, whorled or alternate; flowers in terminal cymose inflorescences; flowers 4-5 (-8)-merous.
..2 Petals connate as a tube; leaves serrate, bearing plantlets in the serrations; [subfamily Kalanchoideae]
..2 Petals distinct or at most basally connate; leaves entire, crenate, or serrate, but not bearing plantlets along the margin; [subfamily Sempervivoideae].
....3 Plants with spheroidal basal rosettes consisting of dozens or more spirally arranged leaves; flowers 8-16-merous
....3 Plants with or without basal rosettes (if rosettes present, these not as above); flowers 4-6-merous
......4 Flowers (5-) 7 (-9)-merous
......4 Flowers 4-5-merous.
........5 Perennials without rosettes, the stems 0.5-10 dm tall (dying back in winter to the rootstock); leaves large, relatively thin in texture, usually 5-25 times as wide as thick, often crenate; flowers pink, purple, white, or greenish.
..........6 Flowers 5-merous, bisexual; flowering stems 2-10 dm tall, from an underground, tuberous base; average leaves 3-11 cm long, 1-5 cm wide; ovaries attenuate at the base; [tribe Telephieae]
..........6 Flowers 4 -(5)-merous, usually unisexual and then the plants dioecious; flowering stems 0.5-4 dm tall, from axils of brown scale-leaves clothing a stout rootstock at least in part exposed aboveground; average leaves 1-5 cm long, 0.4-1.5 cm wide; ovaries not attenuate at the base; [tribe Umbiliceae]
........5 Perennials or annuals with or without rosettes, the stems < 2 dm tall (the perennials with stems persistent through the winter); leaves smaller, flat or terete, relatively thicker, entire; flowers white or yellow; [tribe Sedeae].
............ 7 Leaves flat; leaf margins toothed or crenate.
............ ..8 Leaves alternate; petals yellow
............ ..8 Leaves opposite; petals white to pink
............ 7 Leaves flat, subterete, or terete; leaf margins entire.
............ ....9 Carpels united basally (to about 1/3 their length); petals cucullate, initially partly enclosing 4 of the 8 stamens; follicles dehiscing by a tear-shaped valve on the lower surface; stem and leaves normally red; [of granitic flatrocks of the Piedmont of GA, NC, SC, and VA, and sandstone glades in TN, nw. GA, and AL]
............ ....9 Carpels free; petals flat, never enclosing any of the 8 anthers; follicle dehiscing by a longitudinal slit along the adaxial (upper) suture; stem and leaves normally green, sometimes somewhat pink or reddish; [collectively of various habitats, including similar habitats as Diamorpha]

Key C7: rooted aquatics with simple, cauline, opposite or whorled leaves

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1 Leaves whorled, most nodes with 3 or more leaves.
..2 Leaves strongly toothed to pectinate
..2 Leaves entire or finely toothed.
....3 Leaves tipped by a callus (visible at 10× magnification); leaf margins entire; flowers many, grouped in a terminal involucrate head; [Eudicots]
....3 Leaves not callus-tipped; leaf margins finely toothed or at least with conical protrusions remaining from the disintegration of better-developed deciduous teeth; flowers solitary on elongate, flexuous stalks; [Monocots]
1 Leaves opposite, no nodes with 3 or more leaves.
......4 Cauline leaves in 1 pair
......4 Cauline leaves in 2-many nodes.
........5 Leaves in 2-3 pairs, appearing verticillate; plants of marine waters; [of FL, MS, LA and southward]
........5 Leaves along stem at 2-many nodes; plants of fresh to brackish waters; [collectively widespread].
..........6 Flowers 3-merous; [Monocots].
............ 7 Leaf margins (or at least leaf sheaths) serrate or minutely spiny; fruits sessile, entire; leaves 5-15× as long as wide
............ 7 Leaf margins (including sheaths) entire; fruit stalked, dentate on one side; leaves >20× as long as wide
..........6 Flowers 4- or 5-merous; [Eudicots].
............ ..8 Leaves 1-12 cm long; flowers borne in axillary or terminal spikes or clusters
............ ..8 Leaves 0.5-3 (-5) cm long; flowers solitary, axillary.
............ ....9 Carpels 4-5, separate; fruit an aggregate of follicles; leaves succulent
............ ....9 Carpels 2-5, fused; fruit capsular (variously dehiscent); leaves thin in texture or somewhat succulent (e.g. Bacopa in PLANTAGINACEAE).
............ ......10 Leaves dimorphic, the terminal leaves usually spatulate (strongly expanded towards the apex); corolla absent; stamen 1
............ ......10 Leaves monomorphic, obovate, oblanceolate, or parallel-margined; corolla present (absent in Didiplis in LYTHRACEAE); stamens 2-6.
............ ........11 Flower radially symmetrical, 3-4-merous; petals absent or separate
............ ..........12 Stems lacking ridges running down from leaf bases
............ ..........12 Stems with ridges running down from leaf bases
............ ........11 Flower bilaterally symmetrical, 4-5-merous; petals present, fused at least basally, forming a tube.