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Keyed in multiple places:

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Key G1: woody plants with alternate, simple, pinnately lobed leaves

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1 Shrubs or subshrubs.
..2 Leaves 1-2 (-4) cm long, 0.11-0.3 (-0.5) mm wide, each with > 40 terete lobes; plant white or silvery-gray; inflorescence an involucrate head
..2 Leaves longer and/or wider, with a few to many flattened (< 30) lobes; plant green; inflorescence various, but not as above.
....3 Leaves > 6× as long as wide, the 14-30 lateral lobes evenly arrayed from leaf base to leaf apex; fresh plants strongly aromatic; leaf surfaces dotted with golden-yellow glands, and also pubescent
....3 Leaves < 4× as long as wide, the 2-12 lateral lobes either evenly arrayed from leaf base to leaf apex, or strongly basally oriented; fresh plants not aromatic; leaf surfaces variously pubescent, but lacking golden-yellow glands.
......4 Leaf blades 4-30 cm long; leaf lobing evenly from base to apex, or predominantly towards the tip of the leaf; flowers small, in catkins
......4 Leaf blades 2-7 cm long; leaf lobing predominantly basal (hastate, or with larger basal lobes becoming smaller and more like serrations towards the apex); flowers larger, in various diffuse inflorescences.
........5 Leaves hastate, with 2 acute basal lobes, merely serrate towards the apex; [alien species, of s. GA southward]
........5 Leaves lobate towards base, the lobes rounded in outline, progressively less lobed towards the apex, becoming doubly serrate upwards; [native and alien species, collectively widespread]
1 Trees.
..........6 Leaves even-pinnately lobed, with 4 (or sometimes 6 or 8) lobes, the apex a very broad V-notch or truncate
..........6 Leaves odd-pinnately lobed, with 3, 5, 7, etc. lobes (or sometimes with 2 lobes, but one obviously central and the other smaller and to the side, mitten-like), the apex obtuse to acute.
............ 7 Leaf lobe margins entire.
............ ..8 Leaves deeply 2- or 3-lobed (or rarely with 1-4 additional very small, tooth-like lobes towards the base), most branches with a mixture of unlobed, 2-lobed (mitten), and 3-lobed leaves; fruit a blackish-seeded drupe; fresh plants strongly aromatic
............ ..8 Leaves shallowly or deeply 3-25-lobed; fruit either an acorn or a rather fleshy spherical multiple fruit; fresh plants not aromatic.
............ ....9 Leaves shallowly or deeply 3-25-lobed; fruit a nut in a cupule (an acorn)
............ ....9 Leaves shallowly 3-lobed (or mostly unlobed); fruit a rather fleshy multiple fruit
............ 7 Leaf lobe margins serrate.
............ ......10 Leaves irregularly toothed, the teeth tipped by a soft bristle; fruit a nut in a cupule (an acorn); small to large trees
............ ......10 Leaves evenly and rather finely serrate, not bristly-tipped; fruit at least somewhat fleshy, either a pome or a multiple of nutlets surrounded by a fleshy calyx; small trees.
............ ........11 Petals absent (the individual flowers inconspicuous and aggregated into catkins); fruit a multiple, of nutlets surrounded by a fleshy calyx (mulberry) or a syconium (fig); leaves mainly larger, at least some on a branch > 8 cm long
............ ........11 Petals 5, conspicuous, white or pink; fruit a pome; leaves mainly small, generally < 8 cm long

Key to Rosaceae, Key C: Shrubs and trees with simple leaves

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1 Ovary inferior; fruit indehiscent (pome).
image of plant
Show caption*© Scott Ward
..2 Upper surface of leaves bearing dark glandular trichomes along the midrib (most easily seen with a 10× hand lens); shrubs
..2 Upper surface of leaves lacking dark glandular trichomes along the midrib; shrubs and trees.
....3 Ovary and fruit 10-locular; inflorescence a raceme (rarely a fascicle); pome < 1 cm in diameter
....3 Ovary and fruit 5-locular; inflorescence a cyme, umbel, or fascicle (lacking an elongated central axis); pome 0.7-10 cm in diameter.
......4 Styles distinct; exocarps (carpels within pericarp) bony and seedlike; trees and shrubs, with thorns
......4 Styles usually connate at base; exocarps leather or papery and easily opened to expose seeds; small trees, unarmed, or armed with sharp spur branches.
........5 Pome globose to ovoid, lacking stone cells; anthers yellow to white; styles connate at the base; leaves blunt to acuminate; [apples and crabapples]
........5 Pome globose or pyriform, with stone cells; anthers reddish; styles distinct; leaves acute to acuminate; [pears]
1 Ovary superior; fruit dehiscent (aggregate of follicles, or capsule) or indehiscent (drupe, aggregate of drupelets, aggregate of achenes).
..........6 Leaves opposite; fruit an aggregate of usually 3-5 purple to black drupelets; [tribe Kerrieae]
..........6 Leaves alternate; fruit various (see below; if an aggregate of drupelets, then with >5 drupelets).
............ 7 Leaves large, > 10 cm wide, palmately veined, palmately lobed; fruit an aggregate of drupelets; [tribe Rubeae]
............ 7 Leaves smaller, < 8 cm wide, pinnately veined, either not lobed or basally pinnately lobed; fruit a drupe, a capsule, an aggregate of follicles, or an aggregate of achenes.
............ ..8 Leaves singly serrate or entire (rarely, as in Prunus americana, irregularly and slightly doubly serrate), not lobed basally.
............ ....9 Gynoecium of separate carpels; fruit an aggregate of follicles; [tribe Spiraeeae]
............ ....9 Gynoecium of fused carpels; fruit either a fleshy drupe or a capsule.
............ ......10 Ovary 5-angled in ×-section; fruit a 5-angled capsule; leaves obovate, obviously broadest towards the tip; [tribe Osmaronieae]
............ ......10 Ovary circular in ×-section; fruit a fleshy spherical drupe; leaves generally broadest near or below the middle; [tribe Amygdaleae]
image of plant
Show caption*© Alan Weakley
............ ..8 Leaves doubly serrate, also often lobed towards the base.
............ ........11 Corolla yellow; stems arching, green; fruit an aggregate of drupe-like achenes (dry and indehiscent); [tribe Kerrieae]
............ ........11 Corolla white to pink or rose; stems not both arching and green; fruit various (see below).
............ ..........12 Inflorescence a dense, umbel-like corymb; leaf apices rounded to acute; fruit an aggregate of 5 follicles; [tribe Neillieae]
............ ..........12 Inflorescence a raceme or a leafy panicle; leaf apices acuminate.
............ ............ 13 Fruit a single follicle; [alien, planted, and rarely naturalized, as in e. VA]; [tribe Neillieae]
............ ............ 13 Fruit an aggregate of 2-4 drupe-like achenes; [rare native of calcareous habitats in sc. TN, nw. GA, n. AL, and disjunct westward in AR and MO]; [tribe Kerrieae]
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