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Key to Euphorbiaceae

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1 Plant a twining vine (herbaceous or woody at base) to 5 m long; stem with stinging hairs; [subfamily Acalyphoideae]
1 Plant not twining; instead a tree, shrub, or herb (or weakly twining in some Tragia, but then less than 1 m long); stem either armed with stinging hairs, or not armed.
..2 Shrub or tree (woody).
....3 Leaves entire.
......4 Hairs of vegetative parts of the plant (especially the leaf undersurface) present and either 2-branched, stellate, or modified into lepidote scales (use 10× or more magnification); [subfamily Crotonoideae].
......4 Hairs of vegetative parts of the plant (especially the leaf undersurface) absent or unbranched (simple) (use 10× or more magnification).
........5 Flowers enclosed in a cyathium; plant with copious white latex; [subfamily Euphorbioideae]
........5 Flowers not enclosed in a cyathium; plant either with or without white latex (the sap clear to whitish or absent).
..........6 Leaf blades 1-1.5× as long as wide; [exotic trees].
............ 7 Petioles 9-19 cm long; [subfamily Crotonoideae]
............ 7 Petioles 2-6 cm long; [subfamily Acalyphoideae]
..........6 Leaf blades 1.5-5× as long as wide; native or exotic shrubs or, rarely, small trees.
............ ..8 Sepals absent; latex watery; leaf margins obscurely gland-toothed; [subtropical hardwood hammocks of far southern FL]; [subfamily Euphorbioideae]
............ ..8 Sepals present; latex absent or watery; leaf margins entire; [various habitats and collectively widespread].
............ ....9 Latex colorless to whitish, watery; capsules ovoid or ellipsoidal; [FL peninsula and s. TX]; [subfamily Crotonoideae]
............ ....9 Latex absent; capsules subglobose; [collectively widespread in our region].
............ ......10 Leaves palmately veined at base; inflorescence bracts not subtended by glands; [s. TX and southwards]; [subfamily Acalyphoideae]
............ ......10 Leaves pinnately veined; inflorescence bracts with 2 subtending glands; [widespread from NC to FL west to AR and e. TX]; [subfamily Euphorbioideae]
....3 Leaves crenate, serrate, and/or palmately lobed.
............ ........11 Plants hairy with 2-branched hairs (malpighiaceous trichomes); [subfamily Acalyphoideae]
............ ........11 Plants either glabrous or hairy with simple or stellate trichomes.
............ ..........12 Leaves palmately lobed, margins entire or serrate.
............ ............ 13 Petals absent; inflorescence a panicle; leaf lobe margins serrate; [subfamily Acalyphoideae]
............ ............ 13 Petals present; inflorescence a cyme or dichasium; leaf lobe margins entire or serrate; [subfamily Crotonoideae].
............ ............ ..14 Shrub or tree; inflorescence a fascicle or cyme; capsule ellipsoidal
............ ............ ..14 Tree; inflorescence a dichasium; capsule subglobose
............ ..........12 Leaves unlobed, margins crenate (obscurely crenate in Hippomane and Adelia) or serrate.
............ ............ ....15 Leaves 8-20× as long as wide (lanceolate to linear); petiole with 0 or 2 glands at summit.
............ ............ ......16 Petiole with 2 glands at summit; [exotic, on ballast in Pensacola, FL]
............ ............ ......16 Petiole lacking 2 glands at summit; [native, widespread in our area]
............ ............ ....15 Leaves 1-3× as long as wide (elliptic, ovate, or obovate); petiole with 0 or 1 gland at summit.
............ ............ ........17 Lower leaf surface densely stellate-pubescent; leaf strongly toothed; [TX]; [subfamily Acalyphoideae]
............ ............ ........17 Lower leaf surface glabrous; leaf entire, obscurely crenate, or serrulate.
............ ............ ..........18 Leaf blades obovate, 2-3× as long as wide, with a rounded apex; petiole < 0.2 cm long; fruit a capsule, 1.0-1.3 cm in diameter; [TX]; [subfamily Acalyphoideae]
............ ............ ..........18 Leaf blades ovate, 1-2× as long as wide, with an acute apex; petiole 1-6 cm long; fruit a drupe, 1.5-2.5 cm in diameter; [FL]; [subfamily Euphorbioideae]
..2 Herb.
............ ............ ............ 19 Leaves palmately deeply divided into 3-many lobes.
............ ............ ............ ..20 Plants with a prominent, round woody shallow subterranean caudex to 13.5 cm in diameter; [subfamily Crotonoideae]
............ ............ ............ ..20 Plants lacking a prominent subterranean caudex.
............ ............ ............ ....21 Leaves peltate; plant glabrous; stamens 100-1000; [subfamily Acalyphoideae]
............ ............ ............ ....21 Leaves cordate to truncate or rounded at base; plant glabrous, stellate, or with conspicuous stinging trichomes; stamens 8-15; [subfamily Crotonoideae].
............ ............ ............ ......22 Plant with stinging trichomes; stamens connate
............ ............ ............ ......22 Plant lacking stinging trichomes; stamens separate.
............ ............ ............ ........23 Latex white; pubescence absent or of non-stellate hairs
............ ............ ............ 19 Leaves generally not lobed, entire or serrate (rarely pinnately lobed in Euphorbia).
............ ............ ............ ..........24 Plants hairy with stellate hairs and/or scales; [subfamily Crotonoideae]
............ ............ ............ ..........24 Plants glabrous or hairy with simple or 2-branched hairs.
............ ............ ............ ............ 25 Plants hairy with 2-branched hairs (malpighiaceous trichomes); [subfamily Acalyphoideae]
............ ............ ............ ............ 25 Plants glabrous or hairy with simple hairs.
............ ............ ............ ............ ..26 Flowers enclosed in a cyathium; plant (fresh) with copious white latex; [subfamily Euphorbioideae]
............ ............ ............ ............ ..26 Flowers not enclosed in a cyathium; plant (fresh) with or without white latex.
............ ............ ............ ............ ....27 Flowers in terminal spikes; stout perennial with several to many stems arising from a subterranean crown; [subfamily Euphorbioideae]
............ ............ ............ ............ ....27 Flowers strictly axillary or both axillary and terminal, in small clusters, racemes, or spikes; finer perennial or annual, not typically with > 1 stem arising from a subterranean crown; [subfamily Acalyphoideae]
............ ............ ............ ............ ......28 Leaves alternate; carpels 3 (sometimes fewer by abortion).
............ ............ ............ ............ ........29 Pistillate flowers subtended by a conspicuous leafy bract
............ ............ ............ ............ ........29 Pistillate flowers lacking a leafy bract.
............ ............ ............ ............ ..........30 Plant lacking stinging trichomes; styles deeply multifid; [wetland habitats]
............ ............ ............ ............ ..........30 Plant with stinging trichomes; styles undivided; [upland habitats]

Key G4: shrubs and subshrubs with alternate, simple, unlobed, entire leaves

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1 Leaves evergreen. {add to 1a: Scaevola in GOODENIACEAE, Morella (inodora) in MYRICACEAE, Ternstroemia in PENTAPHYLACACEAE, Myrsine in PRIMULACEAE, Pyracantha in ROSACEAE, Dodonaea in SAPINDACEAE, Cestrum in SOLANACEAE, Thymelaea in THYMELAEACEAE, Conocarpus in COMBRETACEAE}
..2 Leaves 1-7 mm long, either acicular and spreading or ovate and appressed to the stems
..2 Leaves > 10 mm long.
....3 Leaves linear, > 15× as long as wide; [Monocots]
....3 Leaves broader, < 15× as long as wide; [Eudicots, Basal Angiosperms, or Monocots].
......4 Plant a creeping subshrub, < 1 dm tall
......4 Plant not creeping, > 3 dm tall.
........5 Inflorescence an involucrate head
........5 Inflorescence solitary (Illicium in ILLICIACEAE) or variously branched, spicate, racemose, or fascicled, not an involucrate head.
..........6 Carpels separate; fruit an aggregate; fresh foliage strongly fragrant; [Basal Angiosperms]
............ 7 Fruit an aggregate of woody follicles arranged in a whorl
............ 7 Fruit an aggregate of red to blackish berries, 4-6 mm long, each on a long stipe, giving the aggregate almost the appearance of an umbel
..........6 Carpels fused; fruit a berry, drupe, acorn (nut), capsule, or legume; fresh foliage not strongly fragrant; [Eudicots, Monocots, and Basal Angiosperms].
............ ..8 Ovary with 3 carpels; fruit a berry; “leaves” actually cladodes; [Monocots]
............ ..8 Ovary with 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 carpels; fruit a berry, drupe, capsule, legume, or nut; leaves actually leaves; [Eudicots and Basal Angiosperms].
............ ....9 Leaves largely covered with silver and/or bronze lepidote scales and/or dense stellate hairs below (visible at 10× or higher magnification), giving the lower leaf surface a slightly shiny to almost metallic appearance. {add Lyonia ferruginea and L. fruticosa in ERICACEAE; add Loropetalum in HAMAMELIDACEAE}
............ ......10 Petals present, conspicuous, connate, white, the corolla rotate; fruit a berry with several seeds; fresh foliage with a strong, tar-like odor
............ ......10 Petals absent or inconspicuous, greenish and separate if present (note that the calyx is petaloid and white or yellowish in Elaeagnus of ELAEAGNACEAE); fruit a dry capsule with 3 seeds, or a drupe with a single seed; fresh foliage lacking a strong odor.
............ ........11 Perianth 4-merous; petals absent; petaloid sepals white to cream, fused and salverform; carpel 1; fruit a fleshy, red drupe, with a single seed
............ ........11 Perianth 5-merous; petals green and separate, or absent; sepals greenish, separate; carpels 3; fruit a 3-valved capsule with 3 seeds
............ ....9 Leaves with various vestiture (or glabrous), but not as above.
............ ..........12 Flowers in spikes, these solitary opposite leaves or in axillary umbels
............ ..........12 Flowers in other types of inflorescences, not spikes.
............ ............ 13 Leaves 1-foliolate on the upper stems, sometimes 3-foliolate below, or all reduced to phyllodial spines; flowers papilionaceous, bright yellow; fruit a legume; stems bright green
............ ............ 13 Leaves simple throughout; flowers either small, inconspicuous, tannish, borne in catkins (Quercus), or larger and urceolate, or with almost separate and spreading petals, white to pink or reddish-orange, in various terminal or axillary, branched inflorescences; fruit either a nut in a cupule (an acorn), or a (3-) 5-valved capsule, or a spherical berry or drupe; stems generally brown or tan (sometimes green).
............ ............ ..14 Flowers small, inconspicuous, tannish, borne in catkins; fruit a nut in a cupule (an acorn)
............ ............ ..14 Flowers white to pink or reddish-orange, either urceolate or tubular or with separate and spreading petals, in various terminal or axillary inflorescences, or solitary; fruit either a (3-) 5-valved capsule, or a spherical berry with 10+ seeds, or a 1-8 seeded dry or fleshy drupe.
............ ............ ....15 Flowers white to pink or reddish-orange, rotate or urceolate (the petals united at least basally), in various terminal or axillary inflorescences or solitary; fruit either a 2-5 valved capsule or a spherical berry with 10+ seeds.
............ ............ ......16 Flowers reddish-orange; corollas bearing post-staminal hairs (appearing as tufts of hair opposite each anther)
............ ............ ......16 Flowers white to pink; corollas without obvious tufts of hair opposite each anther.
............ ............ ........17 Leaves 1 per node or also paired (on one side of the stem) at some nodes (the leaves then uneven in size); inflorescences leaf-opposed; fruit a berry.
............ ............ ........17 Leaves 1 per node; inflorescences terminal or axillary, never leaf-opposed; fruit a valved capsule.
............ ............ ..........18 Seeds without fleshy aril or attachment; ovaries 5-10 carpellate; flowers urceolate; leaves serrate or entire
............ ............ ..........18 Seeds with fleshy aril or attachment; ovaries 2-4 carpellate; flowers rotate; leaves entire or very remotely serrulate.
............ ............ ............ 19 Flowers few, not showy, green to greenish-white, inflorescence not densely arranged (flowers also sometimes solitary); capsules not beaked; leaves not revolute or undulate
............ ............ ............ 19 Flowers numerous, showy, white; inflorescence densely arranged; capsules with short beak; leaf margins revolute or slightly undulate
............ ............ ....15 Flowers white, petals spreading, separate even at the base, in axillary fascicles or racemes; fruit either a fleshy drupe with 4-8 pyrenes, or a dry single-seeded drupe.
............ ............ ............ ..20 Shrub rhizomatous and colonial; fruit an ellipsoid drupe, 2-3 cm long
............ ............ ............ ..20 Shrub not rhizomatous; fruit either a fleshy or dry drupe, < 1 cm long.
............ ............ ............ ....21 Inflorescence an axillary fascicle or cluster; fruit a fleshy drupe with 4-8 pyrenes
............ ............ ............ ....21 Inflorescence an axillary raceme; fruit a dry drupe with 1 seed
1 Leaves deciduous. {add: Ditrysinia in EUPHORBIACEAE, Glochidion in PHYLLANTHACEAE, Phyllanthopsis in PHYLLANTHACEAE, Nierembergia in SOLANACEAE, Edgeworthia in THYMELAEACEAE, Ipomoea (I. carnea) in CONVOLVULACEAE; Swida (S. alternifolia) in CORNACEAE}
............ ............ ............ ......22 Inflorescence branched, spicate, a catkin, or consisting of a solitary flower or axillary clusters or whorls, not an involucrate head.
............ ............ ............ ........23 Inflorescence a catkin; flowers unisexual; plants dioecious
............ ............ ............ ........23 Inflorescence various, not a catkin; flowers bisexual; plants hermaphroditic.
............ ............ ............ ............ 25 Inflorescences axillary, solitary flowers
............ ............ ............ ............ ..26 Fruit a globose, spinose capsule bearing a longitudinal ridge across 1 or both faces, thus essentially resembling a spikey ball; perianth (4-)5-merous, consisting of 3 upper connate petaloid claws and two lower sessile petals; fresh plants without a strange musky odor; [Eudicots]
............ ............ ............ ............ ..26 Fruit an oblong berry, greenish-yellow when ripe, not bearing small spines; perianth 3-4-merous, without connate petaloid claws; fresh plants fragrant with a strange, musky odor; [Basal Angiosperms]
............ ............ ............ ............ 25 Inflorescence of 2 or more flowers; perianth 3-5-merous; fresh plants not musky-fragrant; fruits various, not as above.
............ ............ ............ ............ ....27 Flowers 3-merous; fruit fleshy, red or greenish-yellow at maturity; ovary superior; [Basal Angiosperms or Eudicots].
............ ............ ............ ............ ......28 Leaves elliptic or narrowly elliptic, broadest near the middle; fresh plants strongly fragrant with a citrus-like aroma; stems unarmed; fruit a drupe, with a single seed
............ ............ ............ ............ ......28 Leaves obovate or oblanceolate, broadest near the apex; stems armed with nodal spines; fresh plants not fragrant; fruit a berry, with several seeds.
............ ............ ............ ............ ....27 Flowers 4-5-merous; fruit fleshy or dry, black, blue, brown, tan, or red at maturity; ovary superior or inferior; [Eudicots].
............ ............ ............ ............ ........29 Fruit a 4-5-valved capsule with many seeds; inflorescence either terminal, a corymb or panicle, or an axillary whorl
............ ............ ............ ............ ........29 Fruit either a drupe or berry (indehiscent, and variously fleshy or dry) or a dry 3-valved capsule with 1 seed; inflorescence axillary (solitary, clusters, fascicles, or racemes), or in a terminal raceme (Pyrularia in SANTALACEAE).
............ ............ ............ ............ ..........30 Leaves largely covered with silver and/or bronze shiny lepidote scales below, giving the lower leaf surface an almost metallic appearance
............ ............ ............ ............ ..........30 Leaves with various vestiture, but not as above.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 31 Ovary inferior or half-inferior; inflorescence an axillary cluster or raceme, or a terminal raceme.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..32 Fruit an elongate drupe (definitely longer than thick), with 1 seed.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....33 Fruit 6-10 mm long; inflorescence an axillary fascicle
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 31 Ovary superior; inflorescence an axillary cluster or an axillary raceme (borne themselves in clusters).
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........35 Fruit a red or orange berry, 8-20 mm long; leaves usually on spur-shoots; [salty coastal areas, or exotics of disturbed situations]
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........35 Fruit a yellowish-green drupe, 12-15 mm long; leaves on main stems; [rich forests, mainly inland]
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........36 Inflorescence a narrowly cylindrical raceme, clustered several to many at the tip of the previous year’s wood and below the current season’s growth; fruit < 3 mm in diameter
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........36 Inflorescence an axillary cluster; fruit > 4 mm in diameter
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 37 Fruit dry, opening by 3 valves, 1-seeded; leaf pubescence stellate
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 37 Fruit fleshy, with 4-8 seeds; leaf pubescence simple or absent.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..38 Fruit yellow to red, the pedicel 10-30 mm long; leaf venation pinnate, but irregular and reticulated
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..38 Fruit dark red to black, the pedicel < 10 mm long; leaf venation very neatly pinnate, with the secondary veins nearly straight and parallel to one another

Key P1: herbaceous dicots with alternate, simple, and unlobed leaves on the stem

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1 Inflorescence an involucrate head subtended by phyllaries, the heads solitary or many and variously arrayed in secondary inflorescences, the ovary inferior, the corolla connate and tubular at least basally, the calyx absent, the stamens 5, the fruit a cypsela
1 Inflorescence, flower, and fruit structure various, but not with the combination of features as above (sometimes the flowers in a head, e.g. Eryngium in APIACEAE, but then with other features differing, such as stamens 4, or green calyx present, or fruit a schizocarp of mericarps, etc.).
..2 Perianth uniseriate (represented only by undifferentiated tepals or sepals) or completely absent; flowers usually unisexual, less commonly bisexual).
....3 Inflorescence a cyathium, consisting of a single pistillate flower (reduced to a single 3-carpellate pistil) and 2 or more staminate flowers (each reduced to 1 stamen), borne in a cup-like involucre, the involucre bearing pointed or rounded glands, these sometimes brightly colored and petaloid, mimicking an individual flower (the cyathia then secondarily arranged in terminal cymes, or solitary and axillary, etc.); fresh plants with milky juice; fruit a 3-lobed, 3-locular capsule
....3 Inflorescence not a cyathium (and staminate or bisexual flowers with > 1 stamen; fresh plants lacking milky juice (except Stillingia in EUPHORBIACEAE); fruit various, not as above.
......4 Leaf margins toothed in some manner (serrate, dentate, crenate, etc.)
........5 Leaf teeth rounded to subacute, resembling shallow lobes, irregular, few (mostly < 6 per leaf side).
..........6 Fruit a single-seeded achene or utricle; [plants of various disturbed or saline, usually sunny habitats]
..........6 Fruit a 3-lobed, circumscissilely dehiscent capsule; [plants native of rich moist shaded forests or exotics in suburban woodlands]
........5 Leaf teeth sharp to crenate, not lobe-like, regular, many (mostly > 10 per leaf side).
............ 7 Leaf bases cuneate
............ 7 Leaf bases cordate to rounded.
............ ..8 Styles 3; fruit a 3-lobed, 3-carpellate capsule (1 carpel sometimes aborting); inflorescence either a terminal or leaf opposed raceme, or a dense axillary condensed cyme with conspicuous toothed bracts subtending the flowers
............ ..8 Styles 1 or 2; fruit either an achene or a multiple of achenes; inflorescence either an axillary dense cyme (almost a head), or an axillary spike with glomerules, or a terminal or axillary panicle.
............ ....9 Styles 2; inflorescence a dense axillary cyme (almost a head); fruit a multiple of achenes; plant lacking stinging hairs; [exotic plant of weedy situations]
............ ....9 Style 1; inflorescence an axillary spikes with glomerules, or a terminal or axillary panicle; plant either with stinging hairs or not; [plant a rare exotic (Boehmeria nivea) or a native of moist forests (Boehmeria cylindrica, Laportea)]
......4 Leaf margins entire.
............ ......10 Ovary inferior or half-inferior.
............ ........11 Leaf base cordate; calyx 3-lobed, fused into a bilaterally symmetrical, curved brown or yellowish tube; fruit a capsule
............ ........11 Leaf base cuneate, rounded, or truncate; calyx of 3-4-5 distinct sepals, radially symmetrical, white or yellow; fruit a dry, nutlike drupe or an achene.
............ ..........12 Leaves subsessile or very short petiolate, elliptic or narrowly elliptic, broadest near the middle; [native]
............ ..........12 Leaves distinctly petiolate, rhombic, widest near the base; [rarely naturalized exotics].
............ ............ 13 Inflorescence of a single axillary flower
............ ............ 13 Inflorescence terminal, spikelike
............ ......10 Ovary superior.
............ ............ ..14 Inflorescence a leaf-opposed (sometimes apparently terminal) spike or raceme; flowers visually white from white petaloid sepals, white bracts, or white stamens.
............ ............ ....15 Sepals present, 4 or 5; petaloid, white; carpels 1 to many (-12); stamens 4 to many (-25); fruit a berry or an apically 2-lobed achene (as in Petiveria); leaf bases cuneate or rounded (but not cordate); [Eudicots].
............ ............ ......16 Sepals 4; carpels 1; fruit subglobose berries or apically lobed achenes
............ ............ ......16 Sepals 5; carpels 6-12, distinct; fruit an oblate berry
............ ............ ....15 Sepals absent; carpels 3-4; stamens 2-6 (-8); fruit a capsule, a 1-seeded drupe, or a schizocarp of 3-4 mericarps; leaf bases cordate or subcordate; [Basal Angiosperms].
............ ............ ........17 Fruit a 1-seeded drupe; stamens 2; plants terrestrial or epiphytic
............ ............ ........17 Fruit a capsule or schizocarp with 3-4 mericarps; stamens 3 or 6-8; plants terrestrial
............ ............ ..14 Inflorescence not leaf-opposed, either simpler (single axillary or glomerules of flowers) or more complexly branched (axillary or terminal panicles or complex cymes); flowers white, reddish, scarious, or greenish.
............ ............ ..........18 Stipules tubular, sheathing (= ocreae); flowers subtended by tubular, sheathing bracteoles (= ocreolae); nodes usually prominently swollen; perianth usually of 5-6 white to pink tepals
............ ............ ..........18 Stipules not tubular or sheathing; flowers not subtended by ocreolae; nodes not swollen; perianth absent or of 3-5 sepals.
............ ............ ............ 19 Inflorescence an terminal involucrate cluster; flowers bisexual; stamens 9
............ ............ ............ 19 Inflorescence axillary, or a terminal panicle or raceme that is not involucrate; stamens 3-6.
............ ............ ............ ..20 Ovary 3-locular; styles 3, each bifid; fruit a capsule, with 6 seeds
............ ............ ............ ..20 Ovary 1-locular; styles 1-3, not bifid; fruit a utricle or achene (1-seeded).
............ ............ ............ ....21 Styles 1, stigma 1; flowers unisexual
............ ............ ............ ....21 Styles 1-3, if style 1, then stigmas 3; flowers bisexual or unisexual.
..2 Perianth biseriate (represented by differentiated whorls of sepals and petals, the sepals usually green or drab in color, the petals often brightly colored); flowers nearly always bisexual (there are exceptions).
............ ............ ............ ........23 Ovary inferior or half-inferior.
............ ............ ............ ............ 25 Inflorescence leaf-opposed, a dense, cylindrical spike
............ ............ ............ ............ 25 Inflorescence various, either a terminal head, or axillary and solitary, or variously axillary or terminal and more diffuse.
............ ............ ............ ............ ....27 Petals 5; stamens 5; inflorescence a head; fruit a schizocarp of 2 mericarps
............ ............ ............ ............ ....27 Petals 4 7; stamens 6 or more; inflorescence various, not a head; fruit a capsule.
............ ............ ............ ............ ......28 Petals 4-7; stamens 1× or 2× as many as the petals, 4-7, 8, 10, 12, or14; leaves herbaceous in texture
............ ............ ............ ............ ......28 Petals 5 (or sometimes doubled in horticultural forms); stamens 6-40 (or more); leaves fleshy in texture
............ ............ ............ ............ ........29 Corolla bilaterally symmetrical, petals connate (except distinct in VIOLACEAE); fruit a capsule or legume (except a 1-seeded indehiscent spinose pod in Krameria in KRAMERIACEAE).
............ ............ ............ ............ ..........30 Petals distinct, 5; carpels 3; fruit a 3-loculed capsule
............ ............ ............ ............ ..........30 Petals connate (at least basally), 4, 5, 6, 7, or 8; carpels 1, 2, 4, 5, or 6 (rarely 3 in Reseda in RESEDACEAE); fruit a legume or 1-, 2-, or 5-loculed capsule (except a 1-seeded indehiscent pod in Krameria in KRAMERIACEAE).
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 31 Stamens 6-10 (-25), more than the number (4 or 5) of petals and the number (4 or 5) of the sepals; fruit a legume or a 1-6-carpellate capsule.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....33 Stamens 10, monadelphous or diadelphous; fruit a legume
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 31 Stamens 4-5, less than the number (5) of the petals; fruit a 2-5-carpellate capsule.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........35 Pistil 5-carpellate; capsule 5-locular, explosively dehiscent; inflorescence axillary, small clusters of flowers
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........35 Pistil 2-carpellate; capsule 2 locular, opening gradually or not at all; inflorescence a terminal spike, raceme or panicle (or solitary, axillary flowers in Chaenorrhinum in PLANTAGINACEAE and Krameria in KRAMERIACEAE).
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........36 Fruit 1-seeded, indehiscent; sepals petaloid, red-purple; petals dimorphic, the upper 3 long-clawed, the lower 2 small, thickened, and glandlike
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........36 Fruit > 2-seeded, dehiscent; sepals sepaloid, green; petals not dimorphic.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 37 Stamens 5; corolla not spurred; capsule septicidal; pubescence of the stem and leaves either gland-tipped or dendritically branched
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 37 Stamens 4; corolla with a distinct spur or sac at the base between the the 2 lower calyx lobes (except not spurred in Digitalis and Schwalbea); capsule loculicidal (only at the summit in Antirrhinum and Chaenorrhinum, and septicidal in Schwalbea); pubescence of the stem and leaves neither gland-tipped (except in Antirrhinum and Chaenorrhinum) nor dendritically branched.
............ ............ ............ ............ ........29 Corolla radially symmetrical, petals connate or distinct; fruit various (including a capsule).
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......40 Pistils 4-10 (each 1-carpellate) in a ring, these sometimes fused basally, each with its own style/stigma; fruit either an aggregate of achenes or follicles or a 5 (-7) locular capsule.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........42 Fruit an aggregate of follicles; leaves fleshy in texture; inflorescence; leaves entire of sparsely and coarsely serrate, with < 12 points per leaf; [plants primarily of dry habitats]
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........42 Fruit a 5 (-7) locular capsule; leaves membranaceous in texture; leaves serrate, with > 20 points per leaf; [plants of wet habitats]
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........41 Pistils many; inflorescence of solitary flowers, or diffuse.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......40 Pistil 1, with 1-to many carpels (in many MALVACEAE, the carpels loosely united in a ring [of more than 5] around the single style/stigma); fruit either a 1-, 2-, 3-, 5-, 6-, or 10-locular capsule, or a silique/silicle, or a ring of mericarps.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..44 Petals 5 (rarely 4 or 6); sepals 5 (rarely 4 or 6); stamens 5 (or multiples of 5), 6, or 12; fruit a capsule or a ring of mericarps.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....45 Stamens many, connate into a staminal tube; carpels 5-many; fruit a capsule or ring of mericarps; leaves usually serrate
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....45 Stamens 5-many, distinct; carpels 2-5; fruit a capsule; leaves entire (serrate in Croton in EUPHORBIACEAE).
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......46 Flowers unisexual; leaf vestiture of peltate scales and/or stellate hairs
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........47 Flowers 6-merous (the petals and sepals 6, the stamens 6 or 12); corolla pink or purplish (rarely white); fruit a septicidal capsule
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........47 Flowers 5-merous (the petals and sepals 5, stamens 5 or various multiples of 5); corolla yellow, reddish, or blue; fruit a loculicidal or septicidal capsule.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........48 Stamens 5; corolla yellow or blue; capsule either 10-locular and septicidal or 1-locular (with 3 carpels) and loculicidal.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........48 Stamens (5-) 10, 15, 20, 30 (-many); corolla white, pink, yellow, or reddish; capsule 3-, 5- (-10)-locular, loculicidal.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..50 Stamens (5-) 10, 15, 20, 30 (-many); corolla yellow or reddish; capsule 3 (-10)-locular, loculicidal
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....51 Pistils 2, united only by the style and stigma; fruit a schizocarp of 2 follicles (often single by abortion); plant with milky juice when fresh; leaves entire; inflorescence an umbel
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....51 Pistil 1 (of 2 or 3 fused carpels); fruit a capsule; plant lacking milky juice; leaves entire or serrate; inflorescence various (but not an umbel).
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......52 Ovary slightly to deeply 2-4-lobed; fruit a schizocarp of 4 mericarps or a drupe.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........53 Ovary slightly 2-4-lobed, or not at all lobed; style terminal or reduced to a sessile terminal stigma; fruit a schizocarp of 4 mericarps, or a drupe
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........54 Leaves larger (or only 2-8 mm long in Pyxidanthera in DIAPENSIACEAE, but then spreading); petals 5-7; stamens 5-7.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 55 Plant a creeping subshrub (keyed here as a failsafe); leaves either 0.2-0.8 cm long and acicular, or 2-10 cm long and broadly ovate or elliptic.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....57 Leaves cuneate to rounded at the base; plant an erect, sprawling, or reclining herb (twining in Solanum dulcamara in SOLANACEAE).
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........59 Corolla lobes longer than the fused corolla cup, blue, pink, or white; styles 2; herbage lacking stipitate glands; fresh plants not aromatic.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........60 Flowers solitary or paired in the leaf axils; capsule cylindrical; leaves 0.5-8 cm long
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........59 Corolla lobes very short, much shorter than the corolla cup or tube, sometimes barely perceptible and represented only by teeth on the edge of the corolla limb, white or pink; style 1; herbage often with stipitate glands; fresh plants often rankly aromatic
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 61 Flowers either solitary and obviously pedicelled, or several in an axillary or lateral inflorescence.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....63 Corolla lobes very short, much shorter than the corolla cup or tube, sometimes barely perceptible and represented only by teeth on the edge of the corolla limb, white, yellow, pink, various other colors (rarely including blue).
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