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Key to Gentianaceae

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1 Leaves all scale-like, 1-3 (-5) mm long, appressed to the stem.
  2 Plants green or purplish-brown, with chlorophyll (hemimycoheterotrophic); [tribe Gentianeae, subtribe Swertiinae]
  2 Plants white or cream, lacking chlorophyll (holomycoheterotrophic); [tribe Voyrieae]
1 Leaves larger, spreading or ascending.
    3 Stem leaves whorled; plants robust, 1-3 m tall; [tribe Gentianeae, subtribe Swertiinae]
    3 Stem leaves opposite; plants generally < 1 m tall.
      4 Calyx lobes 0 (or interpretable as 2) or 4-5; corolla pink, blue, white.
        5 Calyx lobes 0 (but the flower subtended by 2 leaflike bracts that have sometimes been interpreted as sepals); stem leaves obovate, widest near the rounded tip), 0.5-1.5 cm long, crowded near the tip of the stem, basal rosette never present; [of nutrient-rich, mesic forests]; [tribe Gentianeae, subtribe Swertiinae]
        5 Calyx lobes 4-5; stem leaves lanceolate, ovate, elliptic or narrowly elliptic (widest near the middle or toward the base, the tip acute or acuminate), mostly > 1.5 cm long, distributed fairly evenly along the stem, basal rosettes sometimes present; [of various more-or-less open habitats (except some species of Gentiana, which can occur in nutrient-rich, mesic forests)].
          6 Corolla lobes 5-14, longer than the corolla tube, pink or white; [common natives]; [tribe Chironieae, subtribe Chironiinae].
             7 Stigmas shorter than the style
             7 Stigmas equaling or longer than the style
          6 Corolla lobes 4-5, shorter than the corolla tube, blue, lavender, pink or white.
               8 Corolla tube < 2 mm wide; [rare to uncommon exotics, naturalized in disturbed areas]; [tribe Chironieae, subtribe Chironiinae].
                 9 Style not divided or subcapitate; stigma lobes rhombic to fan-shaped, not fleshy; capsule elliptic to ovoid
                   10 Corolla lobes alternating with corolla appendages (appearing as plaits or lobes, these often toothed, notched, or lacerate, sometimes as long as or longer than the true corolla lobes); main stem leaves cuneate at the base; perennial; [tribe Gentianeae, subtribe Gentianinae]
                   10 Corolla lobes not alternating with corolla appendages; main stem leaves rounded to cordate at the base; biennial or annual; [tribe Gentianeae, subtribe Swertiinae].
                     11 Corolla lobes 4, finely fringed; main stem leaves rounded at base, with lateral veins obscure; biennial
                     11 Corolla lobes 5, entire, not fringed; main stem leaves cordate (the cordate bases often overlapping the opposite leaf), with 2-3 well-developed lateral veins (prominently visible on the lower surface); annual
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