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Key N2: herbaceous dicots with mainly basal, simple leaves

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1 Inflorescence an involucrate head subtended by phyllaries, the heads solitary or many and variously arrayed in secondary inflorescences, the ovary inferior, the corolla connate and tubular at least basally, the calyx absent, the stamens 5, the fruit a cypsela
1 Inflorescence, flower, and fruit structure various, but not with the combination of features as above (sometimes the flowers in a head subtended by bracts, e.g. Eryngium in APIACEAE, but then with other features differing, such as stamens 4, or green calyx present, or petals separate, or fruit a schizocarp of mericarps, etc.).
..2 Basal leaves 2-lobed, pinnately lobed, or palmately lobed (not considering cordate, hastate, or auriculate leaf bases as “lobed”).
....3 Basal leaves 2-lobed, hinged between the lobes, each lobe with stiff, marginal, eyelash-like bristles; [Coastal Plain of NC and SC, rarely planted and weakly naturalized elsewhere]
....3 Basal leaves 3-many-lobed, palmately or pinnately; [collectively widespread].
......4 Leaf lobing pinnate.
........5 Gynoecium of separate pistils (each with a single carpel); fruit an aggregate
........5 Gynoecium of a single pistil (with 2, rarely more, carpels); fruit simple.
..........6 Stamens many; sepals 2, petals 4; fresh plants with yellow, orange, or white milky juice
..........6 Stamens 4, 5, or 6; sepals 4 or 5; petals 4 or 5.
............ 7 Petals 4, distinct; stamens 6
............ 7 Petals 5, fused; stamens 2, 4, or 5.
............ ..8 Corolla radially symmetrical; stamens 5
............ ..8 Corolla 2-lipped, bilaterally symmetrical or asymmetrical; stamens 2 or 4.
............ ....9 Corolla lobes not twisted, the flower bilaterally symmetrical; stamens 2
............ ....9 Corolla lobes twisted so as to make the flower asymmetrical; stamens 4
......4 Leaf lobing palmate.
............ ........11 Leaves < 10 cm in diameter
............ ........11 Leaves > 15 cm in diameter
............ ............ 13 Petals 4; stamens 8; fruit a capsule
............ ............ 13 Petals 5; stamens 5; fruit a schizocarp of 2 mericarps.
............ ............ ..14 Fruit smooth; leaves with 5 or more lobes
............ ..........12 Ovary superior, or half-inferior by fusion of a hypanthium a part of the way up the ovary wall.
............ ............ ....15 Gynoecium of separate pistils (each with a single carpel); fruit an aggregate.
............ ............ ......16 Perianth of 5 green sepals and 5 colored petals.
............ ............ ........17 Carpels partly fused, arrayed in a ring of 10-20
............ ............ ......16 Perianth of a single whorl of 3-12 petaloid sepals (the petals absent or small and rudimentary).
............ ............ ..........18 Leaves 2, the single flower terminal and associated with the upper leaf; fruit an aggregate of berries
............ ............ ..........18 Leaves normally > 2, flowers not as above; fruit an aggregate of achenes, utricles, or follicles
............ ............ ....15 Gynoecium of a single pistil (with 1-5 carpels); fruit simple.
............ ............ ............ 19 Hypanthium present, partially fused or not fused to the pistil; ovary partially inferior to superior
............ ............ ............ ..20 Petals distinct; leaves with rounded lobes or teeth.
............ ............ ............ ....21 Corolla radially symmetrical; petals 8-12; capsule fusiform, narrowed to both ends, > 5× as long as wide
............ ............ ............ ....21 Corolla bilaterally symmetrical; petals 5; capsule ovoid, < 2× as long as wide
..2 Basal leaves not lobed, at most serrate or crenate (and sometimes also cordate, hastate, auriculate, or peltate at the base).
............ ............ ............ ..........24 Inflorescence a terminal and/or axillary raceme, panicle, or cyme of many small flowers; fruit an achene; perianth uniseriate, of 0, 4-5, or 6 tepals.
............ ............ ............ ..........24 Inflorescence either a terminal spike, or a 1-7-flowered terminal cyme, or of a solitary axillary or terminal flower; fruit various; perianth biseriate (of differentiated sepals and petals (except uniseriate, of 3 fused sepals in ARISTOLOCHIACEAE).
............ ............ ............ ............ ..26 Flowers bilaterally symmetrical; inflorescence a terminal spike (with > 20 flowers); petals 4, usually scarious, transparent; sepals 4, green; stamens 4
............ ............ ............ ............ ..26 Flowers radially symmetrical; inflorescence either of a solitary flower or of a 1-7-flowered terminal cyme; petals 5, 8-12, or 0; sepals 5 (green), 3 (brown), or 5-9 (yellow); stamens 5, 12, or many.
............ ............ ............ ............ ....27 Gynoecium of separate pistils (each with a single carpel); fruit an aggregate of achenes or follicles; flowers bright yellow, either of 5-9 distinct petaloid sepals, or of 8-12 distinct petals subtended by 3-4 green distinct sepals
............ ............ ............ ............ ....27 Gynoecium either of a single pistil with 6 carpels or of a single pistil with 4 carpels or of 2 nearly separate carpels; fruit a simple capsule (or deeply 2-lobed); flowers white, brown, or greenish, either of 5 fused or distinct white petals and 5 fused or distinct green sepals, or of 3 fused brown or greenish petaloid sepals.
............ ............ ............ ............ ......28 Flowers brown or green, of 3 fused brown or greenish petaloid sepals (and 0 petals); carpels 6; stamens 12; leaves 4-10 cm wide
............ ............ ............ ............ ......28 Flowers white, of 5 white or whitish petals and 5 green sepals; carpels 2; stamens 5; leaves 1-12 (-15) cm wide
............ ............ ............ ............ ........29 Petals fused; sepals fused; carpels 2; plant pubescent.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 31 Gynoecium of separate pistils (each with a single carpel); fruit an aggregate; perianth of 5 green sepals and 5 colored petals.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..32 Carpels 10-20, partly fused, arrayed in a ring; petals white, pink, red, or purplish
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..32 Carpels many, separate, spiral; petals yellow or white.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....33 Flowers lacking a hypanthium; fruit an aggregate of achenes or aggregate of follicles
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....33 Flowers with a hypanthium; fruit an aggregate of drupelets or aggregate of achenes
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......34 Flowers bilaterally symmetrical; inflorescence of a solitary flower; fruit a 3-locular capsule
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........36 Inflorescence a terminal raceme; perianth of 4 green sepals and 4 white petals; fruit a silique/silicle; fresh foliage in spring and summer with a strong garlic odor; larger leaves < 10 cm in diameter
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........36 Inflorescence a terminal panicle; perianth of 6 cream-colored petaloid sepals; fruit a winged achene; fresh foliage lacking a garlic odor; larger leaves typically > 30 cm in diameter
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..38 Leaf blades longer than wide, sharply V-cleft at the base and otherwise shallowly denticulate
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..38 Leaf blades as broad or broader than long, cleft at the base and also irregularly serrate or crenate around the margin
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....39 Leaves tubular, with a sutured ventral flange, erect or reclining, adapted as a pitfall for insects (flat, phyllodial leaves sometimes present as well, common in the winter in some species, such as S. oreophila)
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......40 Stem leaves opposite; perianth 5-merous, at least the corolla bilaterally symmetrical (barely so in VALERIANACEAE), or the parts curved so as to be asymmetrical (Pedicularis in OROBANCHACEAE); stamens 2, 3, or 4.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........42 Corolla narrowly tubular, the five lobes flaring at nearly 90 degrees and nearly radially symmetrical
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........42 Corolla distinctly 2-lipped (with prominently large upper and lower corolla lobes) or hooded (the upper lip hood-like), distinctly bilaterally symmetrical, or the lobes twisted so as to make the corolla asymmetrical.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 43 Corolla yellow, the upper lip often slightly to strongly maroon, hooded but the corolla lobes twisted so as to make the flower asymmetrical
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......40 Stem leaves alternate; perianth radially symmetrical (less commonly bilaterally symmetrical); stamens 5, 6-8, 9, 10 (rarely 4).
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 49 Corolla bilaterally symmetrical (barely so in Limosella in SCROPHULARIACEAE); stamens 2, 4, 6, 8, or 10.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..56 Perianth of green sepals and more brightly colored petals; stamens 5 or 10; carpels 2, 3, 4, or 5.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......64 Inflorescence a somewhat to very diffuse panicle, with 3 or more orders of branching, not giving at all the impression that the overall inflorescence is made of racemose units.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........65 Leaves serrate or crenate; stamens 10; [plants of various habitats, especially rock outcrops and bottomland forests and streambanks, never in tidal marshes]
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......64 Inflorescence either a single terminal raceme (sometimes spike-like), or of 1 to several terminal and axillary racemes (these sometimes combined into a diffuse panicle, but one whose structure is clearly made up of many racemes).

Key to Rosaceae, Key B: Herbs and subshrubs with compound leaves

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1 Leaves 2- to 3-ternately compound; [tribe Spiraeeae]
1 Leaves 1-compound, either simply pinnately compound or simply palmately compound,
..2 Principal (basalmost) leaves pinnately compound, with (3-) 5-many leaflets (upper stem leaves sometimes 3-foliolate).
....3 Principal leaves with leaflets of markedly disparate shape and size (large leaflets alternating with much smaller leaflets, or a large terminal leaflet and much smaller lateral leaflets).
......4 Lateral leaflets alternating between small and large, the terminal leaflet similar in size and shape to the larger lateral leaflets; terminal leaflet < 3 cm wide; hypanthium either conical or turbinate, armed with hooked bristles, the pistils 2, or hemispheric, the pistils >5.
........5 Leaves glabrous or sparsely pubescent beneath; flowers many in racemes; hypanthium conical or turbinate, armed with hooked bristles, the pistils 2; [tribe Sanguisorbeae]
........5 Leaves silvery sericeous beneath; flowers solitary and axillary; hypanthium hemispheric, the pistils >5; [tribe Potentilleae]
......4 Leaflets variable in size and shape, usually the terminal leaflet much larger than any of the lateral leaflets; terminal leaflet 3-20 cm wide; hypanthium either sauce-r-shaped or hemispheric to conical; pistils 5 or more.
..........6 Pistils 5-15, in a circle on a saucer-shaped hypanthium, ripening into upright fruits that resemble follicles but are indehiscent; corolla white or pink; plant 10-20 dm tall; [tribe Ulmarieae]
..........6 Pistils many, densely covering the hemispheric to conical hypanthium, ripening into achenes terminated by the persistent style; corolla white, cream, pale yellow, bright yellow, lavender, maroon, or purple; plant 2-10 dm tall; [tribe Colurieae]
....3 Principal leaves with leaflets of generally similar shape and size (the lowest leaflets may be smaller but of similar shape and toothing to the other leaflets).
............ 7 Stems and leaf rachises and petioles armed with retrorse prickles.
............ 7 Stems and leaves unarmed.
............ ..8 Foliage and stems viscid-pubescent with brownish hairs; inflorescence a cyme; petals 5, cream-colored; [tribe Potentilleae]
............ ..8 Foliage not viscid-pubescent (if hairy, the hairs not brown or viscid); inflorescence of very many (>100) small flowers in a spike, the rachis hidden by the tightly packed flowers; petals 0; [tribe Sanguisorbeae].
............ ....9 Leaflets pinnatifid (each leaflet incised nearly to the midvein); stamens 2 or 4 per flower
............ ....9 Leaflets toothed (the incisions not nearly to the midvein); stamens either 4 or 15-20 per flower (in well-developed, staminate flowers).
............ ......10 Leaflets 0.8-2 cm long; spike 1-2 cm long, 1-2× as long as broad, globose; stamens 15-20 per flower (in well-developed staminate flowers), the filaments 3-4 mm long; sepals green to pinkish-purple; [cultivated, occasionally escaped]
............ ......10 Leaflets 3-10 cm long; spike 6-30 cm long, elongate; stamens 4 per flower, the filaments 8-10 mm long; sepals white (sometimes fading greenish); [native]
..2 Principal (basal-most) leaves palmately compound, with 3-7 (-9) leaflets.
............ ........11 Principal leaves subsessile, 3-foliolate; fruit of follicles; leaves cauline; [tribe Gillenieae]
............ ........11 Principal leaves distinctly petiolate, the petiole often longer than the leaflets, 3-7 (-9)-foliolate; fruit of achenes; leaves basal and cauline.
............ ..........12 Principal leaves 5-7 (-9)-foliolate; [tribe Potentilleae]
............ ............ 13 Petals maroon-colored, shorter than sepals; plants sprawling with horizontal stems bearing rooting nodes; [wetlands from n. PA, n. NJ, sc. IN and sc. OH northward]
............ ............ 13 Petals yellow or white, not shorter than sepals; plants trailing or upright, if bearing horiztonal stems with rooting nodes then petals not maroon-colored and plants not in wetlands; [dry habitats, collectively widespread]
............ ..........12 Principal leaves 3-foliolate.
............ ............ ......16 Pistils 2-6; [tribe Colurieae]
............ ............ ......16 Pistils (10-) numerous; [tribe Potentilleae]
............ ............ ....15 Petals white (or slightly pinkish).
............ ............ ........17 Calyx lobes not subtended by bractlets; [tribe Rubeae]
............ ............ ........17 Calyx lobes subtended by 5 sepaloid bractlets; [tribe Potentilleae].
............ ............ ..........18 Leaves evenly serrate with many serrations; [widespread]
............ ............ ..........18 Leaves with 3 (-5) teeth at the apex, otherwise entire
............ ............ ............ 19 Leaflets entire, except for 3 (-5) teeth at the apex; [tribe Potentilleae]
............ ............ ............ 19 Leaflets evenly serrate or crenate, each well-developed leaflet with > 7 teeth.
............ ............ ............ ..20 Calyx lobes not subtended by bractlets.
............ ............ ............ ....21 Fruit an aggregate of dry, non-adherent achenes; leaflets obtuse at apex; [tribe Colurieae]
............ ............ ............ ....21 Fruit an aggregate of fleshy, adherent drupelets; leaflets acuminate at apex; [tribe Rubeae]
............ ............ ............ ..20 Calyx lobes subtended by 5 sepaloid bractlets; [tribe Potentilleae].
............ ............ ............ ......22 Fruit an accessory fruit of achenes borne on the surface of a fleshy, red receptacle.
............ ............ ............ ........23 Fresh fruit reddish inside; leaflets serrate, 2.5-12 cm long; sepaloid bracts narrowing to apex, untoothed
............ ............ ............ ........23 Fresh fruit whitish inside; leaflets crenate, 2-4 cm long; sepaloid bracts widest at apex, 3-5-toothed
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