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Key to terrestrial orchids: Key to Orchidaceae

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1 Leaves absent at flowering, or with a solitary leaf with a purplish undersurface withering at about the time of flowering.
  2 Flowers with a spur.
    3 Spur shortly obtuse, lip partially tubular; [s. FL]
    3 Spur long and slender, lip not partially tubular; widespread in our region, south in FL to ne. FL]
  2 Flowers without a spur.
      4 Flowers white, the lip, sepals, and petals all predominantly white.
        5 Lip white with a single central green stripe; leaves often fugacious
        5 Lip white, centrally yellow to greenish-white, occasionally with multiple green veins (as in S. praecox and S. sylvatica); leaves present, absent, or withering (fugacious) at flowering
      4 Flowers pink, greenish, yellowish, or purplish, the lip sometimes white or marked with white, the sepals and petals colored.
             7 Flower solitary; [Mountains of SC, NC, and VA northwards]
             7 Flowers not solitary (inflorescence a raceme); [Coastal Plain of SC southwards]
               8 Lip with 2 fleshy keels near the base; pollinia 4; plants holomycotrophic (without chlorophyll) and never with leaves
               8 Lip with 3-7 keels near the base or extending most of the length of the lip; pollinia 4 or 8; plants either holomycotrophic (without chlorophyll) and never with leaves, or with a plicate winter leaf withering shortly before flowering.
                 9 Plants with a plicate winter leaf withering shortly before flowering (the withered remnant usually detectable); veins of the petals and sepals not strikingly different in color than the intervein areas; lip with 3 ridges; pollinia 4
                 9 Plants never with leaves, holomycotrophic (without chlorophyll); veins of the petals and sepals strikingly different in color than the intervein areas; lip with 5-7 ridges; pollinia 8
1 Leaves present at flowering (Cleistesiopsis with a foliaceous bract at the summit of the stem).
                   10 Plants with evident, above-ground pseudobulbs, sometimes enclosed by sheaths.
                       12 Lip broadest near its base; inflorescence typically a spicate raceme (prematurely umbellate in M. spicata); leaves to 10 cm long
                       12 Lip broadest near its apex; inflorescence typically a more open or lax raceme; leaves to 30 cm long.
                     11 Leaf bases not conspicuously clasping the stems (or if clasping, loosely so).
                            14 Flowers predominantly yellow, pseudobulbs > 8 (-100) cm long.
image of plant
Show caption*© Roger L. Hammer
image of plant
Show caption*© Roger L. Hammer
                              15 Flowers without brown spots; pseudobulbs typically 10-30 (-100) cm long
image of plant
Show caption*© Roger L. Hammer
                              15 Flowers with brown spots; pseudobulbs typically 8-15 cm long
                            14 Flowers not predominantly yellow, pseudobulbs < 8 cm long.
image of plant
Show caption*© Matt, some rights reserved (CC BY-NC), uploaded by Matt
                                16 Leaves plicate, without conspicuous dark green mottling.
image of plant
Show caption*© Alan M. Cressler
                                  17 Lip conspicuously bearded (or if not bearded, conspicuously keeled and with brownish-maroon veins extending to margins of lip)
image of plant
Show caption*© Matt, some rights reserved (CC BY-NC), uploaded by Matt
                                    18 Perianth brown (white on lower surface); lip tubular
image of plant
Show caption*© Alan Cressler: Bletia patula, near Arecibo Observatory, Municipio de Arecibo, Puerto Rico 2 by Alan Cressler
                                       19 Lip with 5-7 conspicuous yellow-white keels
image of plant
Show caption*© Alan Cressler: Spathoglottis plicata, Riviere Glace Valley, Grand Anse Department, Haiti 1 by Alan Cressler
                                       19 Lip without 5-7 conspicuous yellow-white keels
                   10 Plants without above-ground pseudobulbs (either absent or subterranean).
                                               23 Leaf not long petiolate, orbicular; lateral sepals reflexed or slightly spreading without long acuminate apices, rather, typically blunt or rounded; [widespread; NC and TN northward]
                                                    25 Flowers relatively large, primarily pink, purple, or white; flowers arranged in loosely arranged racemes
                                                      26 Lip above (not resupinate); flowers purple or pink (rarely white), chasmogomous; lip with yellow fringes (beard)
                                                    25 Flowers relatively small, whitish; flowers arranged in densely (and sometimes also spirally) arranged spikes.
                                                          28 Flower solitary (-4), pink (rarely nearly white); [subfamily Vanilloideae; tribe Pogonieae].
                                                                       34 Leaves typically many (3-14); 4-20 cm long; lip variously colored without conspicuous yellow disc; [widespread]
                                                                                38 Lip with a spur; leaves linear, lanceolate, or narrowly elliptic, 5-40 cm long (at least the larger > 5 cm long, except in Aspidogyne, with lanceolate to ovate leaves 1.5-6.5 cm long).
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