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Key to Asteraceae, Key E: herbaceous composites with leaves alternate or basal,
liguliflorous heads (composed of ligulate florets), and sap usually milky

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1 Cypselae (at least of the inner florets of the head) beaked, the beak usually > ½ the length of the cypselae body.
..2 Heads solitary and terminal at the end of a stem unbranched to its base.
....3 Flower color pink to purple or white
....3 Flower color yellow to yellowish-white.
......4 Leaves basal and cauline, grasslike (untoothed and unlobed); stem leafy
......4 Leaves basal only, variously toothed to pinnately lobed; stem scapiform (leafless).
........5 Pappus of bristles
........5 Pappus either of outer scales and inner bristles or entirely of aristate scales.
..........6 Pappus of outer scales and inner plumose bristles; leaves oblanceolate to oblong; plants annual or perennial
..........6 Pappus of aristate scales; leaves linear to narrowly lanceolate; plants annual
..2 Heads several per stem, in various corymbiform, umbelliform, spiciform, or paniculiform arrays (rarely solitary and terminal in the smallest and most depauperate individuals in a population.
............ 7 Achenes distinctly flattened or compressed.
............ ..8 Florets 5 per head
............ ..8 Florets (6-)10-50+ per head
............ ....9 Plants taprooted annuals or biennials, without rhizomes
............ ....9 Plants rhizomatous perennials, the rhizomes deeply rooted in the substrate
............ ......10 Pappus of plumose bristles, at least the inner series; plant an annual or biennial.
............ ......10 Pappus of simple capillary bristles; plant an annual, biennial, or perennial.
............ ..........12 Beak of the cypsela with a ring of soft white reflexed hairs at the summit (just below the pappus)
............ ..........12 Beak of the cypsela lacking a ring of hairs as described.
............ ............ 13 Pappus of 80-150 barbellulate bristles; plant an annual or biennial
............ ............ 13 Pappus either of 40-50 (or more) smooth bristles or of 20-30 barbellulate bristles; plant a perennial
............ ............ ..14 Pappus of 40-50 (or more) smooth bristles
1 Cypselae beakless, the apex typically rounded or truncate (sometimes tapered but lacking a distinct beak and conspicuously < ½ the length of cypselae body).
............ ............ ....15 Leaves basally disposed (stem leaves few or none, if present generally smaller in size than the basal leaves, which are persistent into flowering and fruiting); corollas yellow, orange, or red.
............ ............ ........17 Heads solitary or 2-3; pappus absent, the cypselae never bearing scales or bristles; cypselae with 8-10 ribs (3-5 prominent); [waif, ne. US]
............ ............ ........17 Heads solitary; pappus present (occasionally absent in Krigia); cypselae with 10-20 ribs; [widespread natives]
............ ............ ..........18 Pappus of 40-80 smooth to barbellulate bristles and sometimes a few subulate to setiform scales (but pappus never absent); [Great Plains, midwest US]
............ ............ ..........18 Pappus absent, of scales, or of 5-45 bristles and 5+ scales; [collectively widespread]
............ ............ ......16 Pappus of bristles only (these barbellulate, plumose, or rarely smooth).
............ ............ ............ 19 Pappus of plumose bristles (these somewhat flattened at their bases)
............ ............ ............ ..20 Leaves with entire margins; plants perennials, from short rhizomes, a short caudex with fibrous roots, or a thick taproot.
............ ............ ............ ..20 Leaves coarsely toothed or pinnately lobed; plants annuals, from a taproot.
............ ............ ............ ......22 Involucre 5-12 mm high; achenes usually > 2.5 mm long; pappus bristles distinct, 3-7 mm long
............ ............ ............ ......22 Involucre 3-5 mm high; achenes 1.5-2.5 mm long; pappus bristles basally connate, 2.5-3.5 mm long
............ ............ ....15 Leaves basal and cauline (plant often beginning with a basal rosette, but by flowering bearing well-developed stem leaves about as large as the basal leaves, the basal rosette often withering prior to flowering and fruiting); corollas yellow, orange, red, blue, pink, white, or lavender.
............ ............ ............ ..........24 Corollas pale blue (rarely pink or white)
............ ............ ............ ..........24 Corollas yellow (rarely orange).
............ ............ ............ ............ ....27 Cypselae 1.2-2.8 mm long; heads borne single at the ends of scapiform stems that are unbranched (rarely few-branched near the base); plants to 7 dm tall
............ ............ ............ ............ ....27 Cypselae 3-5 mm long; heads borne in corymbiform or thyrsiform arrays; plants to 15 dm tall
............ ............ ............ ............ ..........30 Corollas pink, purple, lavender, white, or creamy-yellow.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 31 Leaves linear, entire, < 3 mm wide, or reduced to scales; cypselae 11-14 mm long; [of the Coastal Plain of GA and se. AL south to s. FL]
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 31 Leaves broader, of various shapes, usually hastate, irregularly lobed, and/or serrate; cypselae 3.5-10 mm long; [collectively widespread in our area, south to n. FL]
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..32 Leaves finely prickly; pappus of frizzy outer bristles and coarse, straight inner bristles
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..32 Leaves not finely prickly; pappus of barbellulate bristles (sometimes of uneven thickness but not of 2 distinct types)
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....33 Plants taprooted annuals and biennials (rarely perennials); pappus bristles white and soft in texture
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....33 Plants fibrous-rooted perennials; pappus bristles white, light to medium tan, or sordid, stiff.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......34 Cypselae (2-) 2.5-7 mm long; pappus of (30-) 40-80 white, tan, or sordid bristles, in 1-2+ series; plants cespitose; corollas yellow
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......34 Cypselae 1-2.5 mm long; pappus of 25-40+ white to sordid bristles, in 1 series; plants stoloniferous (cespitose in a few species); corollas yellow or orange
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