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Key to Lamiaceae

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1 Fruit a fleshy drupe; plant a small tree, shrub, or sprawling vine; mature stems terete or obscurely 4-sided (by secondary growth).
..2 Flowers zygomorphic; leaves simple or palmately (3-) 5-7 (-9) foliolate; [subfamily Viticoideae]
..2 Flowers essentially actinomorphic; leaves simple.
....3 Stems pubescent with dendritic hairs; inflorescence axillary; calyx 0.5-2 mm, lobes diminutive to nearly obsolete; [genus incertae sedis]
....3 Stems glabrous or pubescent with simple hairs; inflorescence terminal (rarely only axillary); calyx 5-18 mm, lobes conspicuous; [subfamily Ajugoideae]
1 Fruit a schizocarp of 4 dry mericarps; plant either an herb or a shrub to 5 (-20) dm tall; mature stems usually distinctly 4-sided (sometimes terete or obscurely 4-sided).
......4 Calyx with either a distinctly enlarged protuberance on the upper surface, or the upper lobe expanded and “cap-like”.
........5 Calyx with 5 lobes, clearly separate apically, with the upper lobe expanded and “cap-like”
........5 Calyx with 2 entire lobes joined at the margins, rounded apically, with a distinct protuberance on the upper surface
......4 Calyx without an enlarged protuberance or “cap-like” upper lobe.
..........6 Upper lip of corolla greatly reduced or lobes laterally disposed, thus the corolla appearing to consist of one large lower lip; [subfamily Ajugoideae].
............ 7 Lower lip with 2-4 lobes; flowers yellow or deep blue-purple; plants stoloniferous
............ 7 Lower lip appearing 5-lobed (proximal 2 lateral, erect lobes represent the cryptic upper lip); flowers white to pink; plants cespitose
..........6 Upper lip of corolla conspicuous, flaring or galeate.
............ ..8 Plants distinctly repent and rooting at the nodes, or producing elongate stolons.
............ ......10 Herbs; leaves cordate-reniform, coarsely crenate, the blade > 1 cm long; inflorescence of axillary cymules; corollas 10-20 mm
............ ......10 Subshrubs; leaves ovate to elliptic, entire, the blade < 1 cm long; inflorescence a terminal thyrse; corollas 4-5 mm
............ ........11 Inflorescence in dense axillary verticils; calyx and corolla actinomorphic, calyx 4-5-lobed, flowers 3-4 mm long
............ ..8 Plants not distinctly repent or stoloniferous.
............ ..........12 Calyx with 6-10 lobes or teeth.
............ ..........12 Calyx with 5 or fewer lobes or teeth.
............ ............ ..14 Calyx with 3-4 prominent lobes (rarely 5, if one includes small teeth).
............ ............ ......16 Calyx with 4 unequal primary lobes; flowers large, 2.5-3.5 cm long, in bracteate terminal racemes
............ ............ ......16 Calyx with 3 primary lobes (upper lobe occasionally with 3 apiculate teeth, e.g. Salvia lyrata); flowers 3 cm or less, in terminal thyrses.
............ ............ ........17 Stamens 4; calyx enveloped and partially concealed by subtending bracts
............ ............ ........17 Stamens 2; calyx not enveloped by subtending bracts.
............ ............ ..........18 Herbs; calyx with simple trichomes; leaves non-revolute, margins various, membranaceous
............ ............ ..14 Calyx usually with 5 prominent lobes (except for Clinopodium with rarely fused upper lobes).
............ ............ ............ ....21 Corolla actinomorphic, lobes spreading and nearly equal (one lobe slightly emarginate and/or enlarged).
............ ............ ............ ......22 Inflorescences axillary; foliage not or faintly aromatic
............ ............ ............ ......22 Inflorescences terminal; foliage strongly aromatic
............ ............ ............ ..........24 Corolla 7-20 mm; inflorescence a densely clustered terminal or axillary cyme, or a well developed panicle.
............ ............ ............ ............ 25 Inflorescence a dense cluster of one or more terminal cymules (occasionally just axillary); lower lip of corolla not fringed
............ ............ ............ ............ ..26 Corolla 3.5-4 mm, borne 2 per node in a slender terminal spike; middle lobe of upper calyx reduced
............ ............ ............ ............ ..26 Corolla 4-10 mm, borne in axillary cymes or spike-like panicle; upper calyx lobes similar.
............ ............ ............ ............ ....27 Flowers in loose axillary cymes; calyx gibbous, throat closed by hairs; corollas ca. 4-5 mm long
............ ............ ............ ............ ....27 Flowers in a spike-like panicle; calyx not gibbous or closed by hairs; corollas ca. 10 mm long
............ ............ ............ ............ ......28 Stamens ascending under the upper corolla lip, either included within the tube (or at least not clearly exserted beyond it).
............ ............ ............ ............ ..........30 Flowers borne in terminal verticils or thyrses, with reduced bracteal leaves.
............ ............ ............ ............ ..........30 Flowers borne in axils of well-developed leaves, or a terminal raceme with 1 flower per node.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....33 Stems often with swollen nodes (areas just below appear dark and sunken upon drying, except G. ladanum); hairs of the stem either exclusively hispid or short recurved and mixed with longer glandular trichomes; corolla 15-28 mm long
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....33 Stems without swollen nodes; hairs of the stem finely and softly retrorse, generally lacking glandular hairs (though sessile glands may be present); corolla 5-14 mm long.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........35 Flowers borne in axils of well developed leaves, corolla tube not broadly inflated.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........36 Verticils 6-12-flowered, compact; corollas 10-30 mm.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..38 Shrubs, diffusely branched; [restricted to se. Coastal Plain and Cumberland Plateau]
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..38 Herbs, branched or unbranched; [collectively widespread].
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....39 Calyx teeth distinctly white or pink, noticeably different from the tube
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 43 Upper lobes differing in sinus depth and/or size from the lower lobes; flowers borne variously.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 49 Flowers in dense terminal capitate clusters, subtended by large bracteal leaves (these often whitened on the upper surface and especially towards the base)
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........54 Large plants, well over 30 cm tall; leaves often petiolate, broadly ovate or lanceolate, margins not revolute or entire; [collectively widespread].
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