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Key to Magnoliaceae

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1 Leaves about as broad as long, (0-) 4 (-8)-lobed; fruit a lanceoloid aggregate of samaras (a “samaracetum”), each samara 2-seeded, tan, and indehiscent; [subfamily Liriodendroideae]
1 Leaves longer than broad, not lobed (in some species the leaves auriculate-cordate basally); fruit an ovoid, cone-like aggregate of follicles (a “follicetum”), each follicle dehiscing to reveal a scarlet seed, at first connected to the follicle by a thread-like strand; [subfamily Magnolioideae]

Key G1: woody plants with alternate, simple, pinnately lobed leaves

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1 Shrubs or subshrubs.
  2 Leaves 1-2 (-4) cm long, 0.11-0.3 (-0.5) mm wide, each with > 40 terete lobes; plant white or silvery-gray; inflorescence an involucrate head
  2 Leaves longer and/or wider, with a few to many flattened (< 30) lobes; plant green; inflorescence various, but not as above.
    3 Leaves > 6× as long as wide, the 14-30 lateral lobes evenly arrayed from leaf base to leaf apex; fresh plants strongly aromatic; leaf surfaces dotted with golden-yellow glands, and also pubescent
    3 Leaves < 4× as long as wide, the 2-12 lateral lobes either evenly arrayed from leaf base to leaf apex, or strongly basally oriented; fresh plants not aromatic; leaf surfaces variously pubescent, but lacking golden-yellow glands.
      4 Leaf blades 4-30 cm long; leaf lobing evenly from base to apex, or predominantly towards the tip of the leaf; flowers small, in catkins
      4 Leaf blades 2-7 cm long; leaf lobing predominantly basal (hastate, or with larger basal lobes becoming smaller and more like serrations towards the apex); flowers larger, in various diffuse inflorescences.
        5 Leaves hastate, with 2 acute basal lobes, merely serrate towards the apex; [exotic species, of s. GA southward]
        5 Leaves lobate towards base, the lobes rounded in outline, progressively less lobed towards the apex, becoming doubly serrate upwards; [native and exotic species, collectively widespread]
1 Trees.
          6 Leaves even-pinnately lobed, with 4 (or sometimes 6 or 8) lobes, the apex a very broad V-notch or truncate
          6 Leaves odd-pinnately lobed, with 3, 5, 7, etc. lobes (or sometimes with 2 lobes, but one obviously central and the other smaller and to the side, mitten-like), the apex obtuse to acute.
               8 Leaves deeply 2- or 3-lobed (or rarely with 1-4 additional very small, tooth-like lobes towards the base), most branches with a mixture of unlobed, 2-lobed (mitten), and 3-lobed leaves; fruit a blackish-seeded drupe; fresh plants strongly aromatic
               8 Leaves shallowly or deeply 3-25-lobed; fruit either an acorn or a rather fleshy spherical multiple fruit; fresh plants not aromatic.
                 9 Leaves shallowly or deeply 3-25-lobed; fruit a nut in a cupule (an acorn)
                 9 Leaves shallowly 3-lobed (or mostly unlobed); fruit a rather fleshy multiple fruit
                   10 Leaves irregularly toothed, the teeth tipped by a soft bristle; fruit a nut in a cupule (an acorn); small to large trees
                   10 Leaves evenly and rather finely serrate, not bristly-tipped; fruit at least somewhat fleshy, either a pome or a multiple of nutlets surrounded by a fleshy calyx; small trees.
                     11 Petals absent (the individual flowers inconspicuous and aggregated into catkins); fruit a multiple, of nutlets surrounded by a fleshy calyx (mulberry) or a syconium (fig); leaves mainly larger, at least some on a branch > 8 cm long
                     11 Petals 5, conspicuous, white or pink; fruit a pome; leaves mainly small, generally < 8 cm long
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