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Key to Saxifragaceae

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1 Leaves compound
1 Leaves simple (sometimes cleft or lobed).
  2 Stem creeping, the leaves all cauline, opposite; leaves short-petioled or sessile, < 2 cm long
  2 Stem erect, the leaves mostly or entirely basal, alternate (stem leaves opposite in Mitella); leaves long-petioled, > 4 cm long (except short-petioled or sessile and sometimes < 4 cm long in Micranthes).
    3 Basal leaves short-petioled or sessile, the petioles 0-1× as long as the blade; basal leaves cuneate or rounded at the base; leaf venation predominately pinnate.
      4 Leaves deeply trilobed
    3 Basal leaves long-petioled, the petioles (1-) 2-5× as long as the blade; basal leaves cordate at the base; leaf venation predominantly palmate. {add to key Saxifraga (stolonifera)}
        5 Petals fimbriate; inflorescence a raceme; flowers on pedicels 1-2 (-5) mm long
        5 Petals not fimbriate; inflorescence a panicle or raceme; flowers mostly on pedicels > 3 mm long.
          6 Flowers strongly bilaterally (or irregularly) symmetrical; [non-native, waif from cultivation; "Strawberry-begonia"]
          6 Flowers radially symmetrical; [native, some species also cultivated]
               8 Seeds winged, 1.3-1.5 mm long; leaves cleft < ½ way to base; hypanthium fused to the pistils only at their bases; stems normally with several petiolate leaves much like the basal leaves (though typically somewhat smaller)
               8 Seeds papillose, echinate, smooth, or slightly ridged, 0.4-0.7 mm long; leaves cleft > ½ way to base (in Boykinia) or < ½ way (in Heuchera); hypanthium fused to the lower half or more of the pistils; stems with (in Boykinia) or without (in Heuchera) several petiolate leaves.
                 9 Stems normally with several petiolate leaves much like the basal leaves (though typically somewhat smaller); ovary with 2 locules; leaves cleft > ½ way to base
                 9 Stems with only very reduced sessile bracts unlike the basal leaves; ovary with 1 locule; leaves cleft < ½ way to base

Key N2: herbaceous dicots with mainly basal, simple leaves

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1 Inflorescence an involucrate head subtended by phyllaries, the heads solitary or many and variously arrayed in secondary inflorescences, the ovary inferior, the corolla connate and tubular at least basally, the calyx absent, the stamens 5, the fruit a cypsela
1 Inflorescence, flower, and fruit structure various, but not with the combination of features as above (sometimes the flowers in a head subtended by bracts, e.g. Eryngium in APIACEAE, but then with other features differing, such as stamens 4, or green calyx present, or petals separate, or fruit a schizocarp of mericarps, etc.).
  2 Basal leaves 2-lobed, pinnately lobed, or palmately lobed (not considering cordate, hastate, or auriculate leaf bases as “lobed”).
    3 Basal leaves 2-lobed, hinged between the lobes, each lobe with stiff, marginal, eyelash-like bristles; [Coastal Plain of NC and SC, rarely planted and weakly naturalized elsewhere]
    3 Basal leaves 3-many-lobed, palmately or pinnately; [collectively widespread].
      4 Leaf lobing pinnate.
        5 Gynoecium of separate pistils (each with a single carpel); fruit an aggregate
        5 Gynoecium of a single pistil (with 2, rarely more, carpels); fruit simple.
          6 Stamens many; sepals 2, petals 4; fresh plants with yellow, orange, or white milky juice
          6 Stamens 4, 5, or 6; sepals 4 or 5; petals 4 or 5.
             7 Petals 4, distinct; stamens 6
             7 Petals 5, fused; stamens 2, 4, or 5.
               8 Corolla radially symmetrical; stamens 5
               8 Corolla 2-lipped, bilaterally symmetrical or asymmetrical; stamens 2 or 4.
                 9 Corolla lobes not twisted, the flower bilaterally symmetrical; stamens 2
                 9 Corolla lobes twisted so as to make the flower asymmetrical; stamens 4
      4 Leaf lobing palmate.
                          13 Petals 5; stamens 5; fruit a schizocarp of 2 mericarps.
                            14 Fruit smooth; leaves with 5 or more lobes
                              15 Gynoecium of separate pistils (each with a single carpel); fruit an aggregate.
                                  17 Carpels partly fused, arrayed in a ring of 10-20
                                16 Perianth of a single whorl of 3-12 petaloid sepals (the petals absent or small and rudimentary).
                                    18 Leaves 2, the single flower terminal and associated with the upper leaf; fruit an aggregate of berries
                                    18 Leaves normally > 2, flowers not as above; fruit an aggregate of achenes, utricles, or follicles
                                         20 Petals distinct; leaves with rounded lobes or teeth.
                                           21 Corolla radially symmetrical; petals 8-12; capsule fusiform, narrowed to both ends, > 5× as long as wide
  2 Basal leaves not lobed, at most serrate or crenate (and sometimes also cordate, hastate, auriculate, or peltate at the base).
                                                 24 Inflorescence either a terminal spike, or a 1-7-flowered terminal cyme, or of a solitary axillary or terminal flower; fruit various; perianth biseriate (of differentiated sepals and petals (except uniseriate, of 3 fused sepals in ARISTOLOCHIACEAE).
                                                      26 Flowers bilaterally symmetrical; inflorescence a terminal spike (with > 20 flowers); petals 4, usually scarious, transparent; sepals 4, green; stamens 4
                                                      26 Flowers radially symmetrical; inflorescence either of a solitary flower or of a 1-7-flowered terminal cyme; petals 5, 8-12, or 0; sepals 5 (green), 3 (brown), or 5-9 (yellow); stamens 5, 12, or many.
                                                        27 Gynoecium of separate pistils (each with a single carpel); fruit an aggregate of achenes or follicles; flowers bright yellow, either of 5-9 distinct petaloid sepals, or of 8-12 distinct petals subtended by 3-4 green distinct sepals
                                                        27 Gynoecium either of a single pistil with 6 carpels or of a single pistil with 4 carpels or of 2 nearly separate carpels; fruit a simple capsule (or deeply 2-lobed); flowers white, brown, or greenish, either of 5 fused or distinct white petals and 5 fused or distinct green sepals, or of 3 fused brown or greenish petaloid sepals.
                                                          28 Flowers brown or green, of 3 fused brown or greenish petaloid sepals (and 0 petals); carpels 6; stamens 12; leaves 4-10 cm wide
                                                          28 Flowers white, of 5 white or whitish petals and 5 green sepals; carpels 2; stamens 5; leaves 1-12 (-15) cm wide
                                                                 31 Gynoecium of separate pistils (each with a single carpel); fruit an aggregate; perianth of 5 green sepals and 5 colored petals.
                                                                           36 Inflorescence a terminal raceme; perianth of 4 green sepals and 4 white petals; fruit a silique/silicle; fresh foliage in spring and summer with a strong garlic odor; larger leaves < 10 cm in diameter
                                                                           36 Inflorescence a terminal panicle; perianth of 6 cream-colored petaloid sepals; fruit a winged achene; fresh foliage lacking a garlic odor; larger leaves typically > 30 cm in diameter
                                                                                  39 Leaves tubular, with a sutured ventral flange, erect or reclining, adapted as a pitfall for insects (flat, phyllodial leaves sometimes present as well, common in the winter in some species, such as S. oreophila)
                                                                                    40 Stem leaves opposite; perianth 5-merous, at least the corolla bilaterally symmetrical (barely so in VALERIANACEAE), or the parts curved so as to be asymmetrical (Pedicularis in OROBANCHACEAE); stamens 2, 3, or 4.
                                                                                        42 Corolla distinctly 2-lipped (with prominently large upper and lower corolla lobes) or hooded (the upper lip hood-like), distinctly bilaterally symmetrical, or the lobes twisted so as to make the corolla asymmetrical.
                                                                                    40 Stem leaves alternate; perianth radially symmetrical (less commonly bilaterally symmetrical); stamens 5, 6-8, 9, 10 (rarely 4).
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