Data mode


Sign up

Click the number at the start of a key lead to highlight both that lead and its corresponding lead. Click again to show only the two highlighted leads. Click a third time to return to the full key with the selected leads still highlighted.

Key to Boraginaceae

Copy permalink to share

1 Leaves dissected, lobed, or toothed (sometimes the basalmost leaves simple); style fused for a portion of its length, 2-cleft toward the tip; ovary with 1 locule
1 Leaves entire, simple; style various.
  2 Styles 2, distinct to the summit of the ovary
    3 Flowers in axillary cymes; capsule subglobose; leaves 2-12 cm long
    3 Flowers solitary or paired in the leaf axils; capsule cylindrical; leaves 0.5-8 cm long
  2 Styles absent (the stigma sessile and terminal), single, or with 2 branches.
      4 Ovary slightly 2-4-lobed, or not at all lobed; style terminal or reduced to a sessile terminal stigma
      4 Ovary deeply 4-parted; style gynobasic.
        5 Mericarps with glochidiate prickles (like grappling hooks), these visible early in development.
          6 Mericarps spreading or divergent, attached to the gynobase on the upper third of the mericarp.
             7 Flowering stem leafless above the first branch; corolla blue or white; [non-weedy natives]; [subfamily Cynoglossoideae; tribe Cynoglosseae; subtribe Amsinckiinae]
             7 Flowering stem with leaves above the first inflorescence branch; corolla blue, pink, or reddish-purple; [weedy exotics]; [subfamily Cynoglossoideae; tribe Cynoglosseae; subtribe Cynoglossinae]
          6 Mericarps erect, attached to the gynobase near the middle of the mericarp; [subfamily Cynoglossoideae; tribe Rochelieae; subtribe Eritrichiinae].
               8 Fruiting pedicels deflexed; plant perennial or biennial
               8 Fruiting pedicels erect-ascending; plant annual
        5 Mericarps smooth, rugose, or pitted, lacking glochidiate prickles.
                 9 Corolla rotate, lacking a well-developed tube, blue; [subfamily Boraginoideae; tribe Boragineae; subtribe Boragininae]
                 9 Corolla with a well-developed tube at least 3 mm long, of various colors (including blue).
                   10 Corolla lobes distinctly unequal, pink to blue; [subfamily Boraginoideae].
                     11 Stamens equal in length, entirely included within the corolla tube; [tribe Boragineae; subtribe Boragininae]
                     11 Stamens unequal in length, the longer conspicuously exserted; [tribe Lithospermeae]
                   10 Corolla lobes equal, of various colors (including pink to blue); [subfamily Cynoglossoideae].
                       12 Plant a scrambling climber with retrorsely prickly-hispid stems; [subfamily Cynoglossoideae; tribe Asperugeae]
                            14 Corolla yellow, the tube 4-5 mm long; corolla throat lacking appendages; [subfamily Cynoglossoideae; tribe Cynoglosseae; subtribe Amsinckiinae]
                            14 Corolla white (with a yellow eye), or pink to blue, the tube 6-20 mm long; corolla throat with appendages.
                              15 Corolla pink to blue (rarely white), 18-25 mm long; leaves elliptic or ovate; [plant a native, of moist, nutrient-rich habitats, and sometimes grown as an ornamental] ;[subfamily Cynoglossoideae; tribe Asperugeae]
                              15 Corolla white with a yellow eye; leaves linear; [plant a rare exotic, of disturbed habitats]; [subfamily Cynoglossoideae; tribe Cynoglosseae; subtribe Amsinckiinae]
                          13 Mericarps attached basally to a flat or broadly convex gynobase.
                                16 Mericarps laterally compressed, with an evident raised margin; [subfamily Cynoglossoideae; tribe Myosotideae]
                                  17 Mericarps with a prominent, toothed, basal rim; [subfamily Boraginoideae; tribe Boragineae; subtribe Boragininae]
                                  17 Mericarps lacking a prominent, toothed, basal rim; [subfamily Boraginoideae; tribe Lithospermeae].
                                    18 Corolla whitish or bluish white; plant annual from a slender taproot; leaves without evident lateral veins; mericarps brown, dull, wrinkled and pitted; [plant a weedy exotic]
                                    18 Corolla bright yellow-orange, or greenish-white; plant perennial from a thickened, woody rhizome; mericarps white, shining, smooth or pitted; [plant a native]
Cite as...