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Keyed in multiple places:

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Key to Onagraceae

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1 Flowers 2-merous, the petals white; fruits with uncinate trichomes; leaves opposite, decussate, borne spreading at right angles to the stem, mostly ovate, on petioles mostly 0.5-8 cm long; [subfamily Onagroideae; tribe Circaeeae]
1 Flowers (3-) 4 (-7)-merous, the petals yellow, pink, or white (or absent); fruits lacking uncinate trichomes; leaves alternate (rarely opposite), not decussate, usually ascending or appressed (rarely spreading at right angles to the stem), mostly lanceolate, mostly sessile or subsessile.
  2 Fruit indehiscent; seeds 1-6 per capsule, 1.5-3.5 mm long; [subfamily Onagroideae; tribe Onagreae]
  2 Fruit dehiscent; seeds (10-) 50-many per capsule, 0.3-2 mm long.
    3 Seeds with an elongate coma at one end (wind-dispersed); petals pink or white; [subfamily Onagroideae; tribe Epilobieae].
      4 Leaves all alternate; flowers numerous in a terminal raceme (with small bracts); flower buds reflexed, the flowers held horizontally or ascending; petals 10-20 mm long; stigma 4-lobed; plants 10-30 dm tall
      4 Leaves all or at least the lowermost opposite; flowers few, axillary, or in poorly developed, leafy racemes; flower buds not reflexed, the flowers ascending; petals 2-8 mm long (except 10-15 mm long in E. hirsutum); stigma capitate (except 4-lobed in E. hirsutum); plants 1-20 dm tall
    3 Seeds not comose (gravity-dispersed); petals yellow or absent (rarely white or pink).
        5 Calyx tube not extended beyond the summit of the ovary; sepals persistent on the capsule (rarely deciduous); stamens 4, 8, or 10-14; petals yellow or absent; [primarily of wetlands]; [subfamily Ludwigioideae]
        5 Calyx tube extended beyond the summit of the ovary; sepals deciduous; stamens 8; petals yellow (rarely pink or white); [primarily of uplands]; [subfamily Onagroideae; tribe Onagreae]

Key N2: herbaceous dicots with mainly basal, simple leaves

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1 Inflorescence an involucrate head subtended by phyllaries, the heads solitary or many and variously arrayed in secondary inflorescences, the ovary inferior, the corolla connate and tubular at least basally, the calyx absent, the stamens 5, the fruit a cypsela
1 Inflorescence, flower, and fruit structure various, but not with the combination of features as above (sometimes the flowers in a head subtended by bracts, e.g. Eryngium in APIACEAE, but then with other features differing, such as stamens 4, or green calyx present, or petals separate, or fruit a schizocarp of mericarps, etc.).
  2 Basal leaves 2-lobed, pinnately lobed, or palmately lobed (not considering cordate, hastate, or auriculate leaf bases as “lobed”).
    3 Basal leaves 2-lobed, hinged between the lobes, each lobe with stiff, marginal, eyelash-like bristles; [Coastal Plain of NC and SC, rarely planted and weakly naturalized elsewhere]
    3 Basal leaves 3-many-lobed, palmately or pinnately; [collectively widespread].
      4 Leaf lobing pinnate.
        5 Gynoecium of separate pistils (each with a single carpel); fruit an aggregate
        5 Gynoecium of a single pistil (with 2, rarely more, carpels); fruit simple.
          6 Stamens many; sepals 2, petals 4; fresh plants with yellow, orange, or white milky juice
          6 Stamens 4, 5, or 6; sepals 4 or 5; petals 4 or 5.
             7 Petals 4, distinct; stamens 6
             7 Petals 5, fused; stamens 2, 4, or 5.
               8 Corolla radially symmetrical; stamens 5
               8 Corolla 2-lipped, bilaterally symmetrical or asymmetrical; stamens 2 or 4.
                 9 Corolla lobes not twisted, the flower bilaterally symmetrical; stamens 2
                 9 Corolla lobes twisted so as to make the flower asymmetrical; stamens 4
      4 Leaf lobing palmate.
                          13 Petals 5; stamens 5; fruit a schizocarp of 2 mericarps.
                            14 Fruit smooth; leaves with 5 or more lobes
                              15 Gynoecium of separate pistils (each with a single carpel); fruit an aggregate.
                                  17 Carpels partly fused, arrayed in a ring of 10-20
                                16 Perianth of a single whorl of 3-12 petaloid sepals (the petals absent or small and rudimentary).
                                    18 Leaves 2, the single flower terminal and associated with the upper leaf; fruit an aggregate of berries
                                    18 Leaves normally > 2, flowers not as above; fruit an aggregate of achenes, utricles, or follicles
                                         20 Petals distinct; leaves with rounded lobes or teeth.
                                           21 Corolla radially symmetrical; petals 8-12; capsule fusiform, narrowed to both ends, > 5× as long as wide
  2 Basal leaves not lobed, at most serrate or crenate (and sometimes also cordate, hastate, auriculate, or peltate at the base).
                                                 24 Inflorescence either a terminal spike, or a 1-7-flowered terminal cyme, or of a solitary axillary or terminal flower; fruit various; perianth biseriate (of differentiated sepals and petals (except uniseriate, of 3 fused sepals in ARISTOLOCHIACEAE).
                                                      26 Flowers bilaterally symmetrical; inflorescence a terminal spike (with > 20 flowers); petals 4, usually scarious, transparent; sepals 4, green; stamens 4
                                                      26 Flowers radially symmetrical; inflorescence either of a solitary flower or of a 1-7-flowered terminal cyme; petals 5, 8-12, or 0; sepals 5 (green), 3 (brown), or 5-9 (yellow); stamens 5, 12, or many.
                                                        27 Gynoecium of separate pistils (each with a single carpel); fruit an aggregate of achenes or follicles; flowers bright yellow, either of 5-9 distinct petaloid sepals, or of 8-12 distinct petals subtended by 3-4 green distinct sepals
                                                        27 Gynoecium either of a single pistil with 6 carpels or of a single pistil with 4 carpels or of 2 nearly separate carpels; fruit a simple capsule (or deeply 2-lobed); flowers white, brown, or greenish, either of 5 fused or distinct white petals and 5 fused or distinct green sepals, or of 3 fused brown or greenish petaloid sepals.
                                                          28 Flowers brown or green, of 3 fused brown or greenish petaloid sepals (and 0 petals); carpels 6; stamens 12; leaves 4-10 cm wide
                                                          28 Flowers white, of 5 white or whitish petals and 5 green sepals; carpels 2; stamens 5; leaves 1-12 (-15) cm wide
                                                                 31 Gynoecium of separate pistils (each with a single carpel); fruit an aggregate; perianth of 5 green sepals and 5 colored petals.
                                                                           36 Inflorescence a terminal raceme; perianth of 4 green sepals and 4 white petals; fruit a silique/silicle; fresh foliage in spring and summer with a strong garlic odor; larger leaves < 10 cm in diameter
                                                                           36 Inflorescence a terminal panicle; perianth of 6 cream-colored petaloid sepals; fruit a winged achene; fresh foliage lacking a garlic odor; larger leaves typically > 30 cm in diameter
                                                                                  39 Leaves tubular, with a sutured ventral flange, erect or reclining, adapted as a pitfall for insects (flat, phyllodial leaves sometimes present as well, common in the winter in some species, such as S. oreophila)
                                                                                    40 Stem leaves opposite; perianth 5-merous, at least the corolla bilaterally symmetrical (barely so in VALERIANACEAE), or the parts curved so as to be asymmetrical (Pedicularis in OROBANCHACEAE); stamens 2, 3, or 4.
                                                                                        42 Corolla distinctly 2-lipped (with prominently large upper and lower corolla lobes) or hooded (the upper lip hood-like), distinctly bilaterally symmetrical, or the lobes twisted so as to make the corolla asymmetrical.
                                                                                    40 Stem leaves alternate; perianth radially symmetrical (less commonly bilaterally symmetrical); stamens 5, 6-8, 9, 10 (rarely 4).

Key P3: herbaceous dicots with alternate, simple, and pinnately lobed leaves on the stem

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1 Inflorescence an involucrate head subtended by phyllaries, the heads solitary or many and variously arrayed in secondary inflorescences, the ovary inferior, the corolla connate and tubular at least basally, the calyx absent, the stamens 5, the fruit a cypsela
1 Inflorescence, flower, and fruit structure various, but not with the combination of features as above (sometimes the flowers in a head, e.g. Eryngium in APIACEAE, but then with other features differing, such as stamens 4, or green calyx present, or fruit a schizocarp of mericarps, etc.).
  2 Perianth uniseriate, with only undifferentiated tepals; flowers many and small, greenish or brownish, inconspicuous individually; inflorescence of glomerules that are usually further aggregated into racemes or panicles; fruit an achene or utricle
  2 Perianth biseriate, both sepals and petals present and differentiated (except uniseriate and of 2 white to cream-colored sepals 5-10 mm long in Macleaya in PAPAVERACEAE); flowers larger, usually with the petals prominently colored; inflorescence various, but not as above; fruit a capsule, silique/silicle, or a schizocarp of 2 mericarps.
    3 Corolla bilaterally symmetrical and the petals connate into a tube (or the corolla 2-lipped but the corolla lobes twisted so as to make the flower asymmetrical); stamens 4; fruit a 2-locular and loculicidal capsule opening by 2 valves
    3 Corolla radially symmetrical and either connate into a tube or distinct (except Reseda in RESEDACEAE, with bilateral symmetry but separate petals); stamens 5 or more; fruit a silique/silicle, a schizocarp of 4 mericarps, or a 1-, 3-, or 4-locular capsule (2-locular in Ipomoea in CONVOLVULACEAE and Glaucium in PAPAVERACEAE), opening variously.
      4 Ovary inferior; fruit either a schizocarp of 2 mericarps or a 4-locular capsule.
        5 Flowers 5-merous, aggregated into a head; fruit a schizocarp of 2 mericarps
      4 Ovary superior; fruit either a silique/silicle, or a 1-, 2-, or 3-locular capsule, or a berry.
          6 Sepals and petals of different numbers, the sepals 2-3, the petals 0, 4, or 6; stamens many
          6 Sepals and petals the same number, 4-8 each; stamens 5 or 6 (10-25 in Reseda in RESEDACEAE).
             7 Corolla bilaterally symmetrical; stamens 10-25
             7 Corolla radially symmetrical; stamens 5 or 6.
               8 Petals 4, distinct; stamens 6; fruit a silique/silicle
               8 Petals 5, connate into a tube; stamens 5; fruit either a capsule or a berry.
                   10 Corolla with a long tube, much longer than the lobes, scarlet, white, pink, or blue; leaves shallowly to deeply pinnately parted into 3-many lobes
                   10 Corolla with a short tube, the lobes longer than the tube, purplish; leaves with a single large terminal l lobe, and 2 small basal lobes (these almost separate as leaflets)
                     11 Fruit a capsule, 1-locular; corolla white, pink, lavender, or blue, the tube short (< 4 mm long), the lobes flaring, the corolla < 15 mm long or wide
                     11 Fruit either a capsule, 2- or-3 locular, or a berry; corolla scarlet, blue, white, yellow, greenish-yellow, or purple, the tube long (>10 mm long) and cylindrical, the corolla > 10 mm long or wide.
                       12 Stigmas 3; fruit a capsule with 3 valves; leaf lobes 0.5-5 mm wide, often themselves lobed, the sinuses very deep, often nearly to the leaf midvein
                       12 Stigmas 2; fruit either a capsule with 2 valves or a berry; leaf lobes > 5 mm wide, not lobed themselves, the sinuses shallow, often < 1/2 way to the midvein
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