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Key to Hydrophyllaceae

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1 Leaves entire, simple; styles 2, distinct to the ovary.
..2 Flowers in axillary cymes; capsule subglobose; leaves 2-12 cm long
..2 Flowers solitary or paired in the leaf axils; capsule cylindrical; leaves 0.8-1.5 (-3.5) cm long
1 Leaves dissected, lobed, pinnatifid, or toothed (sometimes the basalmost leaves simple); style fused for a portion of its length, 2-cleft toward the tip.
....3 Flowers solitary on pedicels either axillary to or opposite the leaves on the upper portion of the stem, and sometimes also terminal in a lax, (1-) 2-6-flowered cyme; [tribe Hydrophylleae].
......4 Leaves pinnatifid into 7-13 lanceolate lobes; calyx lobes lacking auricles in between; capsule 4-seeded; seeds lacking an elaiosome
......4 Leaves pinnate with into 3-13 obovate segments; calyx lobes alternating with reflexed or spreading auricles; capsule 1-4-seeded; seeds with a persistent elaiosome
....3 Flowers all terminal in 3-many-flowered cymes.
........5 Inflorescence repeatedly branched subdichotomously; larger leaf blades > 8 cm wide; stamens well exserted from the corolla (3 mm or more beyond the corolla); plants perennial from fibrous roots; [tribe Hydrophylleae]
........5 Inflorescence with a strong central axis (some secondary branching in P. bipinnatifida, but not as above); larger leaf blades < 5 cm wide (except P. bipinnatifida); stamens slightly exserted from the corolla (< 3 mm beyond the corolla) (except well-exserted in P. bipinnatifida, included in P. covillei); plants annual (biennial in P. bipinnatifida) from a taproot; [tribe Romanzoffieae]
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