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Key to Polemoniaceae

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1 Plant a low shrub or subshrub, woody at base or throughout, < 3 dm tall.
..2 Leaves alternate, palmately divided into 3-7, sharp-tipped linear segments; [rare waif]
..2 Leaves opposite, linear to lanceolate, in some species needle-like or nearly so; [collectively widespread]
1 Plant an herb, 1-20 dm tall.
....3 Leaves simple and entire.
......4 Leaves alternate; [subfamily Polemonioideae; tribe Gilieae]
......4 Leaves all or at least the lower opposite; [subfamily Polemonioideae; tribe Polemoniae]
....3 Leaves compound or deeply divided or lobed, 1-3× pinnately or 1× palmately.
........5 Leaves 1× palmately divided into linear segments; leaves all opposite; [rare waif]
........5 Leaves 1-3× pinnately divided into linear or broader segments; leaves all alternate, or at least the upper and midstem leaves alternate.
..........6 Corollas salverform or funnelform, the tube narrow and 20-40 mm long, red, yellow, white, or lavender; larger leaves 1-pinnately lobed, the ultimate segments linear (and not further divided or toothed)
..........6 Corollas variously funnelform, rotate, campanulate, the tube broadening and 3-21 mm long, lavender, white, blue, violet, or pink; larger leaves 1× or more (2-3) pinnately divided or lobed, the ultimate segments linear or broader (ovate, elliptic).
............ 7 Leaves 1-pinnately compound, the leaflets ovate or elliptic, 5-16 mm wide, entire; corollas campanulate, borne in a corymb
............ 7 Leaves 1-3-pinnately divided, the segments either broad or linear, 0.5-5 mm wide, often toothed, lobed or additionally divided; corollas rotate or funnelform, borne either in diffuse panicles or in bracted, terminal heads or head-like clusters.
............ ..8 Inflorescences diffuse panicles; corollas rotate; leaf lobes broad (or linear in Giliastrum acerosum)
............ ..8 Inflorescences of bracted terminal heads or head-like clusters (sometimes looser); leaf lobes linear.
............ ....9 Inflorescence bracts not spinose; inflorescence on a long peduncle; flowers blue; plant 1-9 dm tall
............ ....9 Inflorescence bracts spine-tipped; inflorescence not long-pedunculate, subtended by bracts; flowers white; plant < 1 dm tall

Key J4: shrubs and subshrubs with opposite simple leaves with entire margins

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1 Aerial and epiphytic, hemiparasitic shrub
1 Terrestrial, autotrophic or hemiparasitic shrub or subshrub.
..2 Leaves succulent, nearly as thick as wide; [brackish to saline situations]
..2 Leaves herbaceous (succulent in Borrichia), much wider than thick; [various habitats].
....3 Creeping or short subshrubs, the stems primarily prostrate, < 2 dm tall.
......4 Well-developed leaves 4-6 per stem; inflorescence a head subtended by 4 large white bracts
......4 Well-developed leaves many per stem; inflorescence of individual flowers axillary in pairs or clusters or in terminal cymes.
........5 Flowers yellow; leaves with pellucid or dark punctate glands (use at least 10× magnification)
........5 Flowers white, pale pink, or deep pink; leaves lacking sessile, punctate glands.
..........6 Leaves linear; flowers pale to deep pink, 5-merous
..........6 Leaves orbicular or elliptic; flowers white to pale pink, 4-merous or 5-merous
............ 7 Leaves elliptic; flowers 5-merous; fruit a brownish capsule
............ 7 Leaves orbicular; flowers 4-merous; fruit a red berry
....3 Upright or scrambling shrubs, > 3 dm tall
............ ..8 Scrambling shrubs, armed with recurved paired spines at the nodes
............ ..8 Upright shrubs, unarmed.
............ ....9 Inflorescence a terminal head of many flowers.
............ ......10 Head spherical, lacking an involucre of conspicuous bracts or phyllaries
............ ......10 Head flattened, either subtended by 4 large white bracts or by an involucre with >5 green phyllaries.
............ ........11 Head subtended by 4 large white bracts; leaves with prominently parallel-arcing secondary veins; flowers 4-merous
............ ........11 Head subtended by an involucre of >5 green phyllaries; leaves with venation otherwise; flowers 5-merous
............ ....9 Inflorescence otherwise, either of a solitary flower, or one of a wide variety of inflorescences with flowers attached at different points along branched or unbranched axes (e.g. axillary). {add: [Lagerstroemia] LYTHRACEAE; [Rosmarinus] LAMIACEAE; [Laguncularia] COMBRETACEAE; [Buxus] BUXACEAE; [Exochorda] ROSACEAE; various other [see spreadsheet]}
............ ..........12 Inflorescence flat-topped (broader than long), terminal, a compound cyme or corymb.
............ ............ 13 Flowers bright yellow; stamens many; leaves < 1.5 cm wide; fruit a capsule; leaves with pellucid or dark punctate glands (use at least 10× magnification)
............ ............ 13 Flowers white or creamy; stamens 4-5; leaves > 1.5 cm wide; fruit a drupe; leaves lacking sessile, punctate glands.
............ ............ ..14 Petals 5; foliage with simple hairs
............ ............ ..14 Petals 4; foliage with T-shaped hairs
............ ..........12 Inflorescence either terminal and not flat-topped (longer than wide), or axillary and variously shaped, or terminal and solitary, or leaf-opposed.
............ ............ ....15 Carpels many (> 9), either separate or fused; stamens many; perianth segments either many and undifferentiated into calyx and corolla, maroon, brown, or yellow (in CALYCANTHACEAE), or differentiated into a fleshy and persistent calyx of 5-9 sepals, and a deciduous corolla of 5-9 red (or white) petals (Punica in LYTHRACEAE).
............ ............ ......16 Fruit a wrinkled, 3-7 cm long, brown to black, elliptical aggregate of nearly spherical, large achenes; flowers solitary in axils; perianth segments many and undifferentiated into calyx and corolla, maroon, brown, or yellowish; ovary superior; branches unarmed
............ ............ ......16 Fruit a leathery, 4-15 cm in diameter, reddish, spherical berry with obpyramidal seeds surrounded by a juicy sarcotesta (pomegranate); perianth differentiated, the sepals fleshy and persistent on the fruit, the petals deciduous, 5-9, bright red to white; ovary inferior; branches typically armed with axillary spines
............ ............ ....15 Carpels 1-5, fused; stamens either 1-5 or 8-10; perianth segments 4-5 or 8, variously colored; fruit a simple capsule, drupe, or berry (including berry-like fruit); flowers 2-many, in axillary or terminal inflorescences (pistillate flowers sometimes solitary in SANTALACEAE and THESIACEAE); [Eudicots].
............ ............ ........17 Ovary inferior; corolla absent, radially symmetrical, or bilaterally symmetrical; fruit either a berry or a 1-seeded drupe.
............ ............ ..........18 Flowers unisexual and plants dioecious; corolla absent; pistillate flowers solitary, staminate flowers in pedunculate umbels or cymes, either terminal or axillary; fruit a 1-seeded drupe; leaves acute to acuminate at the apex
............ ............ ..........18 Flowers bisexual and plants hermaphroditic; corolla present; flowers paired, terminal or axillary, or in axillary spikes; fruit a berry; leaves rounded, obtuse, to acute (or acuminate in Lonicera maackii) at the apex
............ ............ ........17 Ovary superior; corolla radially symmetrical (absent in Forestiera in OLEACEAE); fruit either a 1-4-seeded drupe, or a many-seeded berry (or berry-like fruit), or a capsule.
............ ............ ............ ..20 Leaves with a conspicuous mix of silvery stellate hairs (upper) and rusty colored scales (lower); ovaries bearing rusty colored scales; flowers small, yellowish and inconspicuous; [nw. PA northward]
............ ............ ............ ..20 Leaves glabrous or nearly so, lacking a conspicuous mix of stellate hairs adaxially and rusty scales abaxially; ovaries not bearing rusty colored scales; flowers of various size and color.
............ ............ ............ ....21 Stamens 8-10, of 2 different lengths in each flower; petals separate, 4-5 (-7), pink purple, 10-15 mm long; stems strongly arching, rooting at the tips; [plants of flooded to saturated wetlands]
............ ............ ............ ....21 Stamens either (1-) 2 (-4), or 4-5, or 10, all of the same length; petals fused (separate in RHAMNACEAE and BUXACEAE, but then < 5 mm long and white or cream), white, bright-yellow, lilac, or pink; stems erect (or at least not arching and rooting at the tips); [plants of various habitats].
............ ............ ............ ......22 Petals separate, 4-5, white or cream; stamens 4-5.
............ ............ ............ ........23 Fruit a loculicidal capsule, dehiscing into 3 valves; branches square in ×-section; leaves < 2 cm long; [alien, cultivated and weakly established, of temperate areas]
............ ............ ............ ........23 Fruit a drupe with 2-4 pyrenes; branches round or nearly so in ×-section; leaves > 2 cm long; [natives, of peninsular FL]
............ ............ ............ ......22 Petals fused, 4-5, white, bright yellow, lilac, or pink; stamens either (1-) 2 (-4) or 10; fruit either a capsule or a 1-seeded drupe.
............ ............ ............ ..........24 Perianth 5-merous; corolla pink; stamens 10; fruit a 5-locular capsule
............ ............ ............ ..........24 Perianth 4-merous; corolla white, bright yellow, or lilac; stamens (1-) 2 (-4); fruit either a 1-seeded drupe or a 2-locular capsule

Key S1: herbaceous dicots with opposite, simple, and unlobed leaves on the stem

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1 Inflorescence an involucrate head subtended by phyllaries, the heads solitary or many and variously arrayed in secondary inflorescences, the ovary inferior, the corolla connate and tubular at least basally, the calyx absent, the stamens 5, the fruit a cypsela
1 Inflorescence, flower, and fruit structure various, but not with the combination of features as above (sometimes the flowers in a head, e.g. Pycnanthemum in LAMIACEAE, but then with other features differing, such as stamens 4, or green calyx present, or fruit a schizocarp of mericarps, etc.).
..2 Leaves scale-like, stems fleshy; flowers embedded in the fleshy stem, no perianth present; [saline environments (coastal or rarely inland)].
..2 Leaves small to large; stems not fleshy; flowers sessile or on pedicels; [collectively of many habitats, saline and not].
....3 Ovary inferior or partially inferior.
......4 Perianth of a single whorl (petals absent) (note that in Mirabilis in NYCTAGINACEAE the petaloid calyx is subtended by a 5-lobed fused set of involucral bracts).
........5 Leaves herbaceous, suborbicular, about as long as wide or wider than long; calyx 3- or 4-merous; stamens 4, 8, or 12.
..........6 Plant ascending, with a single node (2 leaves); leaves > 6 cm long and wide; calyx 3-merous, brown to yellowish; stamens 12
..........6 Plant creeping, with many nodes; leaves 3-15 mm long and wide; calyx 4-merous, yellow to greenish; stamens 4 or 8
........5 Leaves fleshy, linear, lanceolate, to broadly ovate, at least slightly longer than broad; calyx 5-merous; stamens 3, 5, or 10.
............ 7 Flowers axillary, sessile or nearly so, solitary or a few; petaloid sepals widely spreading, separate; leaves linear to oblanceolate; stamens 5 or 30-50
............ 7 Flowers in terminal cymose panicles; petaloid sepals connate into a narrow tube (reminiscent of the corolla of Ipomoea); leaves lanceolate, elliptic, ovate, or broadly ovate; stamens 3 or 5
......4 Perianth in 2 whorls (sepals and petals both present).
............ ..8 Petals distinct; inflorescence diffuse.
............ ....9 Leaves distinctly 3-veined from the base, the 3 veins converging again at the leaf apex
............ ....9 Leaves with prominently pinnate venation
............ ..8 Petals connate into a tube (at least basally); inflorescence often a head or dense terminal cyme (also axillary, or solitary on long peduncles).
............ ......10 Petals 5; stamens 3, 4, or 5
............ ........11 Creeping subshrub; flowers paired at tip of an upright peduncle
............ ........11 Upright herb; flowers in axils or terminal corymbs
............ ..........12 Flowers in terminal corymbs; fruit dry
............ ..........12 Flowers axillary; fruit fleshy
............ ......10 Petals 4 (or 6 or 8 in Richardia in RUBIACEAE); stamens 4, 6, or 8.
............ ............ 13 Inflorescence a head, subtended by 4 large bright white bracts
............ ............ 13 Inflorescence a head or more diffuse (see below), sometimes subtended by green bracts.
............ ............ ..14 Leaves serrate; corolla bilaterally symmetrical (especially the flowers near the outer edge of the head); inflorescence a head
............ ............ ..14 Leaves entire; corolla radially symmetrical; inflorescence a head or more diffuse (see below).
............ ............ ....15 Petals acute; flowers in terminal panicles, cymes, or panicles, or axillary; plant habit various, not simultaneously with all the characters below
............ ............ ....15 Petals broadly rounded; flowers axillary, solitary; plant a diffusely branched herb with linear leaves
....3 Ovary superior.
............ ............ ......16 Perianth of a single whorl (petals absent) or missing entirely (petals and sepals both absent). {key lead number needs adjusting}
............ ............ ........17 Inflorescence a cyathium, consisting of a single pistillate flower (reduced to a single 3-carpellate pistil) and 2 or more staminate flowers (each reduced to 1 stamen), borne in a cup-like involucre, the involucre bearing pointed or rounded glands, these sometimes brightly colored and petaloid, mimicking an individual flower (the cyathia then secondarily arranged in terminal cymes, or solitary and axillary, etc.); fresh plants with milky juice; fruit a 3-lobed, 3-locular capsule
............ ............ ........17 Inflorescence not a cyathium (and staminate or bisexual flowers with > 1 stamen, except Callitriche in PLANTAGINACEAE); fresh plants lacking milky juice; fruit various, not as above.
............ ............ ..........18 Flowers 1 (or 2) in leaf axils; leaves entire.
............ ............ ............ 19 Flowers unisexual; sepals 0; flowers (staminate) with 1 stamen
............ ............ ............ 19 Flowers bisexual; sepals 4; flowers with 2, 4, or 6 stamens.
............ ............ ..........18 Flowers many, in axillary spikes, cymes, or glomerules, or in terminal spikes, heads, cymes, or panicles; leaves entire or serrate.
............ ............ ............ ....21 Fruit single-seeded, an achene or utricle; {YYYY}.
............ ............ ............ ......22 Leaves serrate, regularly and sharply so; plants with stinging hairs (or not)
............ ............ ............ ......22 Leaves entire, or with a few very obscure crenations (Iresine) or basally disposed rounded lobe-like teeth (Atriplex); plants without stinging hairs.
............ ............ ............ ........23 Leaves of a pair slightly to strongly different in size
............ ............ ............ ........23 Leaves of a pair the same size.
............ ............ ............ ..........24 Styles 1-2 (-3); leaves 2-30 mm long, 0.5-8 mm wide, linear or narrowly elliptic
............ ............ ............ ..........24 Style 1; leaves generally either longer than 30 mm, or wider than 8 mm (if linear and smaller than those dimensions, then fleshy).
............ ............ ............ ............ 25 Tepals scarious; inflorescence of heads, spikes, or panicles
............ ............ ............ ............ 25 Tepals herbaceous; inflorescence of glomerules, these axillary or arrayed in spikes or panicles
............ ............ ......16 Perianth in 2 whorls (sepals and petals both present).
............ ............ ............ ............ ..26 Gynoecium of 4-many pistils, each 1-carpellate.
............ ............ ............ ............ ....27 Pistils 4-5, in a single whorl; stamens 4, 5, 8, or 10; fruit an aggregate of follicles
............ ............ ............ ............ ....27 Pistils many, spiral; stamens many; fruit an aggregate of plumose achenes
............ ............ ............ ............ ..26 Gynoecium either of 1 pistil (with 1 or more carpels), or of 2 pistils, united only by the style and stigma (APOCYNACEAE).
............ ............ ............ ............ ......28 Petals not at all connate, not even at their bases.
............ ............ ............ ............ ........29 Leaves with pellucid punctate glands (most easily visible with transmitted light); stamens often fascicled into 3, 4, or 5 fascicles; petals yellow or pinkish
............ ............ ............ ............ ........29 Leaves lacking pellucid punctate glands; stamens not fascicled; petals variously colored.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 31 Petals 3; sepals 5, dimorphic, the 2 outer sepals narrower than the 3 inner and concave sepals; stamens (3-) 5-15 (-25)
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 31 Petals 4-7; sepals 4-7, normally monomorphic; stamens 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, or 12 (or sometimes rarely 2 or 3).
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..32 Capsule 2-5 (-6) locular; style 1; perianth 4-7-merous; stamens 4, 6, 8, 10, or 12
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..32 Capsule either 1-locular of 10-locular; styles 2-5; perianth 4-5-merous; stamens 4, 5, 8, or 10 (or rarely 2 or 3).
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....33 Capsule 1-locular, dehiscent apically by teeth or valves; sepals connate into a tube or separate; styles 2-5; perianth 4-5-merous; stamens 4, 5, 8, or 10 (or rarely 2 or 3)
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....33 Capsule 10-locular (each of the 5 carpels divided at maturity), septicidal; sepals distinct or nearly so; styles 5, perianth 5-merous; stamens 5
............ ............ ............ ............ ......28 Petals connate at least for a short distance at their bases.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......34 Corolla radially symmetrical (or so slightly bilaterally symmetrical as to be mistakable as radially symmetrical); stamens as many as the corolla lobes (or 1 less in Ruellia in ACANTHACEAE, Buchnera in OROBANCHACEAE, Trichostema in LAMIACEAE, and Verbena in VERBENACEAE); carpels 2 or 3.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........35 Pistils 2, united only by the style and stigma; fruit a schizocarp of 2 1-carpellate follicles (often single by abortion); plant with milky juice when fresh (except Catharanthus); leaves entire
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........35 Pistil 1 (of 2-5 fused carpels); fruit either a 2-5-carpellate capsule or of 2 or 4 1-seeded nutlets derived from 2 carpels; plant lacking milky juice; leaves entire or serrate.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........36 Ovary and capsule 3-5-carpellate; capsule 3- or 1-locular.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..38 Inflorescence a terminal cyme; corolla salverform, with an elongated and very narrow tube, pink or white; capsule 3-locular
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..38 Inflorescence various but not cymose, of terminal or axillary racemes or panicles, or of solitary axillary flowers; corolla connate only at the base, the petals appearing nearly separate (not salverform); capsule 1-locular
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........36 Ovary and capsule 2-carpellate; fruit either a 2-locular capsule or of 2 or 4 1-seeded nutlets derived from 2 carpels.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....39 Stamens 4-12, the same number as the corolla lobes; corolla (and the flower as a whole) strictly radially symmetrical.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......40 Capsule septicidal; corolla white, pink, blue, yellowish white, or greenish white; inflorescence either a terminal or axillary cyme, or a terminal panicle or raceme, or a terminal or axillary cyme reduced to 1 or a few flowers
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......40 Capsule loculicidal and also deeply 2-lobed; corolla white, pink, or scarlet with a yellow interior; inflorescence of cymosely arranged spikes
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....39 Stamens either 4, 1 fewer than the 5 corolla lobes, or 2 (with 2 staminodes); corolla usually slightly bilaterally symmetrical (the flower as a whole made bilaterally symmetrical by the 2 or 4 stamens).
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........41 Leaves entire; corolla tube flaring for all of its length
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........42 Fruit a schizocarp of 4 1-seeded nutlets; inflorescence terminal, of cymes; corolla ca. 5 mm long; leaves prominently 3-veined
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........42 Fruit a capsule; inflorescence axillary, of cymes or clusters (often reduced to a solitary flower); corolla > 12 mm long; leaves with single primary vein
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........41 Leaves serrate; corolla salverform, the tube narrow and nearly the same diameter for most of its length; inflorescence a terminal spike, raceme, raceme of racemes, or head.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 43 Fruit a 2-locular capsule; stamens inserted near the base of the corolla tube
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 43 Fruit a schizocarp of 4 mericarps; stamens inserted near or above the middle of the corolla tube
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......34 Corolla bilaterally symmetrical (or the corolla 2-lipped but the corolla lobes twisted so as to make the flower asymmetrical); fertile stamens fewer than the corolla lobes (except Plantago in PLANTAGINACEAE, which is equal, with 4 each; a few genera have a 5th, sterile, stamen which is obviously different in form than the 4 fertile stamens) (note that many corollas are bilabiate and the number of corolla lobes, 4 or 5, may be difficult to interpret); carpels 2.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..44 Carpels 2, each carpel slightly to deeply lobed, separating at maturity into 4 half-carpellate units (not separating in Phyla in VERBENACEAE); fruit a schizocarp of 4 mericarps (or 2 nutlets in Phyla in VERBENACEAE).
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....45 Inflorescence a thyrse, verticillaster, or terminal cyme, the flowers borne in cymose lateral branches; corolla strongly bilaterally symmetrical (rarely nearly radially symmetrical); stems square in ×-section (or sometimes rounded, especially on older growth); fresh plants often (but not always) aromatic
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....45 Inflorescence of spikes, racemes, or heads, the flowers or fruits single at nodes; corolla often nearly radially symmetrical; stems rounded in X-section (rarely square); fresh plants usually not aromatic
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........47 Corolla 4 lobed, almost radially symmetrical; corolla scarious, white, or bluish
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........47 Corolla 4-5-lobed, either strongly bilabiate or salverform (Pseuderanthemum in ACANTHACEAE); white, blue, or yellow.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........48 Inflorescence of solitary (rarely 2) axillary flower. {add [Hypoestes] ACANTHACEAE}
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..50 Corolla barely bilaterally symmetrical, the lobes about as long as the tube; outer sepals ovate, much wider than the inner sepals
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..50 Corolla distinctly bilabiate, the lobes shorter than the tube; sepals of nearly the same width.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......52 Corolla 5-lobed, distinctly bilabiate or in some nearly radially symmetrical; corolla colored.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........53 Flowers in terminal racemes, panicles, or spikes, the inflorescence not interspersed with large, leaf-like bracts.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........54 Sepals connate for at least 0.3× their length to form a tube (this cup-like and flaring in Scrophularia in SCROPHULARIACEAE).
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 55 Inflorescence a diffuse panicle; corolla 5-11 mm long, reddish-brown (sometimes with some yellow); fruit a septicidal capsule
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 55 Inflorescence of 1 or more terminal (and sometimes upper axillary) spikes or racemes; corolla 10-50 mm long (6-8 mm long in Phryma in PHRYMACEAE), white, pink, blue, purple, or yellow; fruit either a loculicidal capsule (OROBANCHACEAE) or a single seeded achene (Phryma in PHRYMACEAE).
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..56 Corolla 6-8 mm long, white to pale pink; fruit a 1-seeded achene contained in the accrescent calyx, this “lopping down” against the inflorescence axis
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........53 Flowers axillary and solitary, borne in the axils of normally-sized leaves or somewhat reduced but still large and leaf-like bracts [some taxa keyed here and below].
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........59 Leaves entire, either mostly larger or smaller [see below]; plant not blackening on drying
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........60 Leaves 0.6-2.8 cm long, round, obovate, or broadly elliptic, < 1.8× as long as wide; plants creeping, ascending to 3 dm tall; [plants of wet places]
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........60 Leaves 3-30 cm long, narrowly elliptic to lanceolate, > 2× as long as wide; plants erect or the stems sprawling; [plants mostly of uplands]
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..62 Calyx lobes longer than the tube, or as long as the tube, corolla 25-50 mm long; plants usually blackening on drying
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..62 Calyx lobes shorter than the tube; corolla 14-22 mm long; plants not blackening on drying.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....63 Corolla red or orange, with a very narrow, cylindrical tube, the lobes then flaring into a limb about 1 cm across; plants blackening on drying; [rare alien, in crop fields, a noxious hemiparasitic weed under quarantine]
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....63 Corolla yellow, not narrowly cylindrical, the lower lip arched; plants not blackening on drying; [rare, in seepage wetlands]
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......64 Corolla pink (sometimes almost white), often lined with yellow inside; leaves narrowly linear, often filiform (except lanceolate in A. auriculata); plants usually blackening on drying (some species do not); corolla not strongly bilabiate
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......64 Corolla white, blue, or combinations of blue and white (sometimes with some yellow markings); leaves broader, mostly lanceolate; plants not blackening on drying; corolla strongly bilabiate.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........65 Upper lip of the corolla not hooded and enclosing the anthers; plants not blackening on drying.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........66 Corolla blue; lower lip of the corolla arched upwards into the throat; plants perennial from rhizomes or crowns, 3-13 dm tall
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........66 Corolla bicolored, the upper lip white or very pale blue, the lower lip bright blue; lower lip of the corolla folded downward into a pouch enfolding the anthers; plants annuals, 0.5-4 dm tall
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