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Key to Verbesina

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1 Stem and lower leaf-surfaces grey strigose-canescent; annuals, 2-10 dm tall, with taproots
1 Stem and lower leaf surfaces glabrous or pubescent, but not grey strigose-canescent; perennials, 4-40 dm tall, with fibrous or fleshy-fibrous roots.
  2 Leaves primarily opposite (the uppermost sometimes alternate).
    3 Internodes winged; [collectively widespread].
      4 Plants 4-5 (-10) dm tall, perennating from short horizontal rhizomes; ray flowers (5-) 8; disc flowers 20-60+; [endemic to ne. FL and se. GA]
      4 Plants 10-30 dm tall, perennating from a crown with fleshy roots; ray flowers (0-) 1-3 (-5); disc flowers 8-15+; [widespread]
    3 Internodes not winged; [collectively of sw. GA, s. AL, FL Panhandle, and TX].
        5 Ray flowers 0; heads 1 (-3)
        5 Ray flowers (5-) 11-13+, yellow; heads 1-20.
          6 Phyllaries 2-3+ mm long; disk flowers 40-80+; [AL, FL, GA]
          6 Phyllaries 5-12+ mm long; disk flowers 80-120; [TX]
  2 Leaves primarily alternate (the lowermost sometimes opposite).
             7 Heads few, 1-15 (-20) in a compact inflorescence; disc 7-16 mm wide at anthesis; ray flowers (5-) 7-15, yellow; plants 5-12 dm tall
             7 Heads numerous, 10-200+ in a dense to open inflorescence; disc 3-15 mm wide at anthesis; ray flowers either absent, or 1-5 and white, or 2-10 and yellow; plants 10-40 dm tall.
               8 Ray florets present; disk flowers white or yellow.
                 9 Ray flowers and disc flowers white.
                   10 Ray flowers 9-12+; disk flowers 20-25+; [TX only]
                   10 Ray flowers 1-7; disk flowers 8-15; [collectively widespread].
                     11 Lower and middle leaves pinnately lobed or dissected; achenes of ray florets glabrous; [of the outer Coastal Plain from SC southward]
                     11 Lower and middle leaves entire, serrate, or slightly undulate; achenes of ray florets papillose or short-pubescent; [more widespread in our area]
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