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Key F: woody angiosperms with alternate, compound leaves

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1 Leaves 2-foliolate or 1-foliolate (and then deeply notched).
  2 Leaves 1-foliolate (2-lobed)
  2 Leaves 2-foliolate
1 Leaves 3-, 5-, to many-foliolate.
    3 Leaves 3-foliolate.
      4 Plant a liana, climbing by twining, by tendrils, or by adventitious roots.
        5 Leaves coarsely toothed or lobed. {add Eleutherococcus trifoliatus ARALIACEAE}
          6 Leaflets obovate or broadly elliptic (broadest at or above the middle), the teeth or lobes primarily or solely in the apical half of the leaf; plant climbing by leaf-opposed tendrils
          6 Leaflets orbicular or ovate (broadest at the middle or below the middle), the teeth or lobes primarily or solely in the basal half of the leaf; plant climbing by stem twining or by dense, reddish adventitious roots.
             7 Plant climbing by the stem twining; [plant not actually woody, but so robust as to often be assumed to be so]
             7 Plant climbing by dense, reddish adventitious roots attaching the stem to tree trunks or rock outcrops
      4 Plant a shrub (sometimes scrambling or occasionally high-climbing with the support of other vegetation, but lacking the specialized climbing structures listed above).
               8 Stems armed with small prickles or stout thorns.
                 9 Stems with stout thorns at the nodes; fruit a hesperidium (orange-like, but densely hairy)
                 9 Stems with many small prickles along the internodes; fruit either a legume, or an aggregate of drupelets, or a hip.
                   10 Leaflets with 2 rounded lateral lobes near the base, otherwise entire; fruit a legume
                   10 Leaflets serrate and sometimes also cleft; fruit either an aggregate of drupelets or a hip
                     11 Leaflets serrulate, crenulate, serrate, with a few coarse and jagged teeth (spine-tipped or not), or shallowly lobed.
                       12 Leaflets serrate, with a few coarse and jagged teeth (spine-tipped or not), or shallowly lobed.
                          13 Leaflets with 2 prominent, rounded lobes near the base; fruit a legume; flowers > 3 cm long, corollas bilaterally symmetrical, red, in a terminal raceme
                          13 Leaflets serrate and sometimes also cleft, or with a few coarse and jagged teeth (spine-tipped or not); fruit either a tan or red drupe or a red berry; flowers < 1 cm across, corollas radially symmetrical, green, yellow, or white, in axillary or terminal panicles or racemes
                            14 Leaflets with a few spine-tipped teeth; fruit a red berry; [TX westwards]
                            14 Leaflets not spine-tipped; fruit a red or tan drupe; [collectively widespread]
                                16 Leaflets < 2 cm long; stems and branches dark green
                                16 Leaflets 5-15 cm long; stems and branches tan to brown
                                  17 Leaves pinnately trifoliolate, a rachis present as an extension of the petiole past the point of attachment of the 2 lateral leaflets, the terminal leaflet borne on a petiolule at the terminus of the rachis, with an obvious joint present between the rachis and petiolule
                                  17 Leaves palmately trifoliolate, the terminal leaflet typically with a longer petiolule than the lateral leaflets, but lacking a rachis (the petiolule of the terminal leaflet attached at the same point as the 2 lateral leaflets and unjointed)
    3 Leaves with 5-many leaflets (poorly developed leaves in some species with only 3 leaflets).
                                       19 Leaves palmately-pedately 5-foliolate (the lateral 2 leaflets on each side borne on a common Y-shaped stalk).
                                                            29 Plant armed with prickles on the stem, and sometimes also on the axes and main veins of the leaves
                                                                 31 Foliage blue-green; leaflets obovate, rounded or notched at the tip; flowers 4-5-merous, the sepals green, the petals yellow; fruit a capsule
                                                                                    40 Leaves with conspicuous leafy stipules, often adnate to the petiole; plant a liana or small to medium shrub; leaves serrate, often sharply and prominently so; leaves not strongly aromatic when fresh, lacking pellucid punctate glands on the surface
                                                                                    40 Leaves lacking leafy stipules; plant a tree or tall shrub; leaves entire or obscurely crenate or serrate; plant a tree or tall shrub; leaves either strongly aromatic when fresh, with conspicuous pellucid punctate glands or not aromatic and not pellucid-punctate.
                                                                                                          50 Leaflets with obscure crenations, not as below nor bearing glands; leaf rachis narrowly to conspicuously winged, especially towards the tip; fruit a drupe; plant a shrub or small tree
                                                                                                          50 Leaflets (especially the basal and on the basalscopic side) with 1-5 large rounded teeth, each bearing a prominent dark green gland; leaf rachis not winged; fruit a schizocarp, with 2-5 samaroid mericarps; plant a medium to large tree
                                                                                                                53 Plant a tree, freely branched; rhizome inner bark not brightly colored; flowers unisexual, the male flowers in catkins, the female flowers solitary or few in a spike, the perianth greenish or tan and inconspicuous; fruit a nut covered by a dehiscent or indehiscent involucre
                                                                                                                53 Plant a short shrub, < 1 m tall, little branched; rhizome inner bark of fresh plants bright yellow; flowers bisexual, petals absent, the 5 petaloid sepals maroon; inflorescence a drooping panicle from the base of the new year’s growth; fruit an aggregate of follicles

Key to Fabaceae, Key D: woody legumes with oddly 1-pinnately compound leaves with 5 or more leaflets

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1 Liana, climbing by twining; [tribe Millettieae]
  2 Inflorescence a stiff panicle; leaflets (5-) 7-9; ovary and fruit glabrous; leaves evergreen
  2 Inflorescence a pendent raceme; leaflets 7-19; ovary and fruit either glabrous or densely velvety-villous; leaves cold-deciduous
1 Shrubs and trees, lacking climbing adaptations.
    3 Leaflets glandular-punctate (not requiring magnification).
      4 Leaflets 4-10 cm long; leaves with 7-13 leaflets; large tree; flowers ca. 15 mm long, pink-purple; [tribe Milletieae]
      4 Leaflets 0.4-4 (-7) cm long; leaves with (7-) 9-31 leaflets; shrub or small tree; flowers 4-11 mm long, white, cream, violet, purple, or blue; [tribe Amorpheae].
        5 Corolla reduced to a single petal (the standard); flowers whitish, sky blue, dark blue, purple, or violet; [collectively widespread]
        5 Corolla of 5 petals; flowers white to cream, sometimes 'fading' to dark purple; [s. FL, TX].
          6 Flowers papilionoid, either cream, fading purplish, or bicolored white and purple; [s. FL, TX, OK]
          6 Flowers only slightly bilaterally symmetrical, white; [TX]
    3 Leaflets lacking punctate glands.
             7 Leaflets 3-9 per leaf; leaflets 2-15 (-20) cm long; small or large tree (to shrub in Dermatophyllum secundiflorum).
               8 Lateral leaflets all or mostly alternate along the rachis.
                 9 Leaflets (5-) 7-9 per leaf; flowers 18-25 mm long, white; [native, also planted; SC, GA, AL, MS, and LA northwards]
                 9 Leaflets 3-5 (-7) per leaf; flowers ca. 10 mm long, yellow-white or pinkish; [non-native; FL peninsula]
               8 Lateral leaflets strictly in opposite pairs.
                   10 Stamens free; [tribe Sophoreae].
                     11 Corollas 14-16 mm long, blue-purple; fruit turgid and cylindrical, but torulose-constricted between the scarlet seeds; [native; TX]
                     11 Corollas 7-11 mm long, cream to white; fruit flattened, not constricted between the tan to light brown seeds; [non-native]
                   10 Stamens monadelphous or diadelphous; [FL peninsula]; [tribe Milletieae]
                       12 Fruit woody, unwinged, with 1 very large (ca. 2 cm long) seed; stamens diadelphous
                       12 Fruit 2-9 cm long, membranaceous, with 4 broad, tan, ruffled wings and 1-6 black seeds; stamens monadelphous
             7 Leaflets (5-) 7-31 per leaf, at least the larger and better developed leaves on a plant with 11 or more leaflets; leaflets 0.4-12 cm long; shrub, small tree, or large tree.
                          13 Corollas 5-6 mm long, pink or purplish; fruits 15-35 mm long, 1-3 mm wide
                          13 Corollas 9-30 mm long, yellow, white, pink, or purplish; fruits 25-150 (-200) mm long, 5-35 mm wide.
                            14 Corollas ca. 10 mm long, pink or purplish; fruit a single-seeded, globose or broadly ellipsoid drupe, 2.5-4 cm long, 2-3 cm in diameter; leaflets 4-12 cm long; [s. FL]
                            14 Corollas 15-30 mm long, white, pink, purplish, or bright yellow or coppery; fruit a legume, seeds several; leaflets 2-6 cm long; [collectively widespread]
                              15 Corollas bright yellow or coppery; fruits about as thick as wide, either bladdery-inflated or moniliform (like beads on a string).
                                16 Fruits bladdery-inflated, 50-70 mm long, 20-30 mm in diameter; stamens diadelphous; [cultivated ornamental, rarely establishing]
                                16 Fruits moniliform (like beads on a string), 100-200 mm long, 7-8 mm in diameter at the seeds, 1-2 mm in diameter between the seeds; stamens free; [native of coastal peninsular FL and TX].
                              15 Corollas white, pink, or pink-purple; fruits flattened (wider than thick).
                                  17 Leaflets rounded, obtuse, or retuse (and also usually with a noticeable mucro) at the apex; calyx with lobes at its apex; branches sometimes armed with stipular (nodal) spines or internodal hispid hairs; [temperate, widespread in our region]
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