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Key to Asteraceae, Key J: Herbaceous composites with the leaves alternate or basal and the heads radiate, the rays yellow, orange, red

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1 Disc florets functionally staminate (sterile), with style undivided.
  2 Phyllaries 10 or less, in 2 series; plants annual; [primarily OK and TX]
  2 Phyllaries 12 or more, in (2-) 3-4 series; plants perennial; [collectively widespread, including OK and TX in our area]
    3 Cypselae with broad wings with 2 confluent awns
    3 Cypselae not winged, pappus absent or of 2-4 ciliate scales.
      4 Disc florets green, red, or maroon; pappus absent; leaves lanceolate, lyrate, or lyrate-pinnatifid (but not deeply pinnatifid); [nc. TX westward]
      4 Disc florets primarily yellow; pappus of 2-4 ciliate scales; leaves deeply pinnatifid [sw. AR and e. TX westward, waif in e. LA]
1 Disc florets bisexual (fertile), with style bifurcate.
        5 Leaves decurrent down the stem (the stem appearing winged); cypselae strongly flattened and often winged
        5 Leaves not decurrent; cypselae moderately compressed to 4-angled, not winged (or if winged, the cypselae obcompressed or obconic).
          6 Receptacular bracts connate to form a honeycomb-like structure in which the flowers are set; pappus of 7-12 scales
          6 Receptacular bracts not fused and not forming a honeycomb-like structure; pappus absent, of awns/scales, or a fused crown (Phoebanthus sometimes with up to 4 additional scales shorter than 2 primary lacerate scales).
             7 Heads subtended by a calyculus (bracts distinct from phyllaries)
             7 Heads without a calyculus.
               8 Leaves not noticeably clasping the stem.
                 9 Leaves pinnately lobed, the primary lobes usually pectinately divided; [non-native]
                 9 Leaves unlobed or if pinnatifid to pinnately lobed, the primary lobes not pectinate; [natives].
                   10 Pappus of 2 caducous, or readily-falling scales; receptacles flat
                   10 Pappus absent, or of 1-2 lacerate scales (on shoulders of cypselae) plus additional lacerate (bristlelike) scales; receptacles subspheric, conical, columnar, or otherwise convex.
                       12 Leaf blades linear; plants from slender, horizontal tubers; pappus absent or of 1-2 lacerate scales (on shoulders of cypselae) plus additional lacerate (bristlelike) scales; [natives of AL and FL; subtribe Ecliptinae]
                       12 Leaf blades variously shaped, not all linear (often with some ovate or rhombic leaves); plants from woody caudices; pappus absent; [waif in SC, native in arid southwest; subtribe Helianthinae]
                     11 Receptacle strongly conic or columnar; phyllaries 3-21, in 1-2 series; [subtribe Rudbeckiinae].
                          13 Phyllary series unequal (outer longer than inner); cypselae strongly compressed; ray florets subtended by receptacular bracts
                          13 Phyllary series subequal; cypselae not strongly compressed; ray florets not subtended by receptacular bracts (only the disc flowers with bracts)
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