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Key to Asteraceae, Key H: Herbaceous composites with the leaves alternate, the heads lacking rays, and with a pappus of bristles only

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1 Receptacle paleate (bearing receptacular bracts which individually subtend at least some of the flowers of the head).
..2 Involucres absent or vestigial, usually with 0 phyllaries; heads very small, < 6 mm high, < 4 mm wide; annuals, < 4 dm tall; disc corollas hidden or dingy in color; [tribe Gnaphalieae].
....3 Receptacles cylindric to clavate (5-15× as tall as the diameter); most paleae of pistillate flowers open to ± folded (at most each enfolding, not enclosing a floret; apices acuminate to aristate); innermost paleae erect to ascending in fruit; cypselae monomorphic (the outer ± equaling the inner)
....3 Receptacles obovoid (0.4-1.6× as tall as the diameter); most paleae of pistillate flowers ± saccate, each ± enclosing a floret, apices blunt; innermost paleae spreading in fruit; cypselae dimorphic (the outer longer than the inner)
..2 Involucres present, conspicuous, of many phyllaries; heads larger, 2-20+ mm wide; perennials or coarse annuals, 2-25 dm tall; disc corollas apparent, white, or pink to purplish or reddish.
......4 Phyllaries tipped by a hooked spine
......4 Phyllaries not armed, herbaceous to the tip.
........5 Cypselae with 5 angles or 5 grooves; involucre 2-3 mm tall and in diameter; pappus of 1 (-5+) usually glandular setae (interpretable as bristles, hence keyed here); [Coastal Plain; FL and GA]
........5 Cypselae with 10 ribs; involucre 3.5-12 (-15) mm tall and in diameter; pappus of 35-40 barbellulate bristles; [mainly Coastal Plain; VA south to s. FL, west to e. LA]
..........6 Heads larger, the involucre 6-15 mm high, with 15-40 phyllaries; leaves with conspicuous (at least at 10× magnification) resin dots.
..........6 Heads smaller, the involucre 3.5-6 mm high, with 5-12 phyllaries; leaves without shining punctate glands (except punctate-glandular in Litrisa carnosa, of the FL peninsula).
............ 7 Stem with punctate glands; peduncles punctate-glandular and also hirsutulous; pappus bristles in 2 series; [of FL peninsula]
............ 7 Stem eglandular, glabrous or spreading-hirsute; peduncles glabrous or stipitate-glandular; pappus bristles in 1 series; [widespread in the Coastal Plain].
1 Receptacle epaleate (lacking receptacular bracts individually subtending flowers, but the receptacle sometimes bearing bristles, setae, hairs, or pits with laciniate margins; some taxa lacking paleae on many or most flowers of the head are keyed here as well, as a failsafe).
............ ..8 Phyllaries in 1-2 series and equal or subequal in length to one another, the phyllaries often coherent/fused (the involucre thus appearing as a cylinder with ribs extending from base to top, except in species in which the phyllaries are radially winged); calyculus (of bracts subtending the phyllaries and differing from them in texture, color, or orientation) present or not; [tribe Senecioneae]
............ ....9 Annuals, 2-10 dm tall (or perennial, vining or sprawling and to 30 dm long in Gynura); leaves cauline and alternate; disc flowers orangey-brown, brick-red, purplish, yellow.
............ ......10 Plants perennial, vining or sprawling, velutinous or villous with purple hairs
............ ......10 Plants annual, upright or ascending, not purple-hairy.
............ ........11 Involucre subtended by several leafy bracts; cypselae 8- or 10-ribbed
............ ........11 Involucre not subtended by bracts; cypselae 5-ribbed
............ ....9 Perennials (robust annuals in Erechtites), 2-30 dm tall; leaves basally disposed and alternate on the stem (except only alternate in Erechtites); disc flowers cream or yellow (rarely pale lavender in Arnoglossum).
............ ..........12 Plants annual, with leaves primarily on the stem; leaves sharply and raggedly toothed or even pinnately lobed; heads disciform (the outer flowers female, the middle bisexual, and the inner functionally male)
............ ..........12 Plants perennial, with leaves basally disposed (larger basal leaves, decreasing in size upwards, the basal leaves sometimes withering late in the year); leaves with generally regular toothing, stem leaves sometimes pinnately lobed; heads discoid (all flowers bisexual)
............ ............ 13 Disc flowers yellow.
............ ............ ..14 Perennials; leaves basally disposed, the basal or lower stem leaves unlobed (though toothed)
............ ............ ..14 Annuals; leaves not basally disposed, evenly distributed on the stem, the lower stem leaves more-or-less pinnatifid
............ ............ 13 Disc flowers cream, white, or greenish white (to pale lavender in some Arnoglossum).
............ ............ ....15 Phyllaries 5, radially wing-keeled or not; disc flowers 5; calyculus absent
............ ............ ....15 Phyllaries 7-21, not radially winged; disc flowers 10-55 (-80+); calyculus absent or of 1-9+ bracts.
............ ............ ......16 Plants (5-) 6-24 dm tall; calyculus of 4-9+ bracts; [collectively relatively widespread in our region]
............ ............ ......16 Plants 1-7 dm tall; calyculus absent or of 1-5+ bracts; [Mountains of w. NC and e. TN]
............ ..8 Phyllaries in 3-17 series and unequal in length (imbricated); calyculus absent.
............ ............ ........17 Stem prominently winged, the wings > 1 mm wide
............ ............ ........17 Stem not winged (sometimes the leaves decurrent < 2 cm down the stem from the node).
............ ............ ..........18 Phyllaries usually 12-30+ in 3-10+ series, scarious (at least the margins).
............ ............ ............ 19 Plants perennial, mat-forming by stolons, with basal rosettes of spatulate leaves, these usually with obvious appressed hairiness on (at least) the lower and (sometimes also) the upper blade surfaces; erect stems (with scattered alternate leaves) 4-45 cm tall; plants usually dioecious (pistillate and staminate heads on separate plants)
............ ............ ............ 19 Plants annual, biennial, or perennial, not mat-forming or stoloniferous, erect, the leaves usually lanceolate or linear (spatulate in some species), leaf surface hairiness variable; erect stems (with alternate leaves) 5-80 cm tall; plants hermaphroditic (with heads containing both pistillate and functionally staminate flowers) or dioecious or subdioecious (in Anaphalis).
............ ............ ............ ..20 Plants perennials; heads discoid (unisexual or nearly so); plants usually unisexual and dioecious
............ ............ ............ ..20 Plants annuals (perennials in Omalotheca sylvatica); heads disciform (each bisexual); plants hermaphroditic.
............ ............ ............ ....21 Leaves oblanceolate, 1.5-4 mm wide, notched at the tip or with a minute apiculus in the notch; pappus bristles persistent, plumose
............ ............ ............ ....21 Leaves various in shape, the lager > 4 mm wide, acuminate, acute, obtuse or rounded at the tip; pappus readily falling, the bristles barbellate to barbellulate.
............ ............ ............ ......22 Heads in capitate clusters arrayed in corymbiform or paniculiform arrays; phyllaries white or silvery; pappus bristles distinct, falling individually
............ ............ ............ ........23 Pappus bristles connate basally into a ring, falling together
............ ............ ............ ........23 Pappus bristles distinct, falling individually
............ ............ ............ ......22 Heads in spicate arrays, or in glomerules axillary to leaves or well-developed bracts; phyllaries white to red-tinged or brown; pappus connate at the base into a ring, falling as a unit.
............ ............ ............ ..........24 Perennial; phyllaries in 2-3 series; cypselas strigillose; involucre light to dark brown; [waif, in PA]
............ ............ ............ ..........24 Annual; phyllaries in 3-7 series; cypselas papillate or glabrous; involucre white to red-tinged or brown; [widespread in our region]
............ ............ ............ ............ 25 Pappus of 12-28 bristles; cypsela faces papillate
............ ............ ............ ............ 25 pappus of 8-12 bristles; cypsela faces glabrous
............ ............ ..........18 Phyllaries in 3-5 series, herbaceous to thickened, generally green in color.
............ ............ ............ ............ ..26 Disc corollas yellow, pale yellow, orange, reddish, or brown.
............ ............ ............ ............ ....27 Phyllaries 5, in one series; phyllaries streaked with elongate glands filled with strong-scented oil
............ ............ ............ ............ ....27 Phyllaries 10-60+ in 2-9 series; phyllaries eglandular or with small punctate glands.
............ ............ ............ ............ ......28 Phyllaries strongly armed with long spines
............ ............ ............ ............ ........29 Decumbent annual, to 2 dm tall; heads solitary and axillary
............ ............ ............ ............ ........29 Erect or ascending annual or perennial, 1-15 dm tall; heads in corymbiform, paniculiform, or racemiform arrays.
............ ............ ............ ............ ..........30 Plants dioecious, either male or female; heads either staminate, with 10-50 flowers, or pistillate, with 20-150 flowers; heads pale yellow to white
............ ............ ............ ............ ..........30 Plants hermaphroditic; heads bisexual, with 2-35 flowers, either all perfect (bisexual), or a mixture of perfect (bisexual) and functionally staminate flowers.; heads yellow to pale yellow.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 31 Leaves entire; flowers 2-6 per head; heads arrayed in a neatly flat-topped corymb
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 31 Leaves (at least the larger) toothed or lobed; flowers 5-35 per head; heads in racemiform, paniculiform, or corymbiform arrays, but if corymbiform, irregular.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..32 Larger leaves 2.5-10 cm long, 1-4 cm wide; involucres 6-12 mm in diameter; [widespread in our region]
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..32 Larger leaves 1-5 cm long, < 1 cm wide; involucres 2-7 mm in diameter; [s. and se. TX].
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....33 Inflorescences in rounded, corymbiform arrays; leaves glabrous
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....33 Inflorescences in elongate, racemiform to paniculiform arrays; leaves moderately to densely hairy with both glandular and non-glandular hairs
............ ............ ............ ............ ..26 Disc corollas pink, purple, lavender, blue, or white.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......34 Phyllaries either spine-tipped, or appendaged with a marginal zone that is strikingly different in color and texture than the phyllary body (except Leuzea); receptacle epaleate, but densely beset with bristles or subulate scales (flattened bristles).
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........35 Phyllaries scarious-margined, neither spine-tipped nor appendaged with dentate or fringed appendages
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........36 Phyllaries appendaged, the appendage black, brown, tan, or scarious, and toothed or fimbriate.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 37 Phyllary bodies linear, their margins entire (phyllary appendages fimbriate; however); leaf margins entire, denticulate or serrulate
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 37 Phyllary bodies oblong, ovate, or obovate, both their margins and appendages fimbriate; leaf margins entire, toothed, or pinnately lobed.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..38 Flower heads pink, lavender, or purplish; phyllary appendages scarious and spineless, decurrent along the phyllary margin nearly to the phyllary base; perennial; flowers pink to purple, flowering Jun-Oct
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..38 Flowers heads blue; phyllary appendages not or only slightly decurrent along the phyllary margins; annual; flowers pale to medium blue, flowering Apr-Jun
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......34 Phyllaries not armed, also not appendaged with a marginal zone that is strikingly different in color and texture than the phyllary body.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....39 Plants dioecious, either male or female; heads either staminate, with 10-50 flowers, or pistillate, with 20-150 flowers; heads pale yellow to white
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....39 Plants hermaphroditic; heads bisexual, with 3-100+ flowers, either all perfect (bisexual), or a mixture of perfect (bisexual) and functionally staminate flowers.; heads purple, pink, lavender, or whitish.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......40 Leaf blades orbicular; leaf margin scalloped or crenate; [rare waif in our region]
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......40 Leaf blades linear, lanceolate, or ovate; leaf margin entire, serrulate, or serrate; [collectively common and widespread].
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........41 Style branch appendages absent, the style branch stigmatic along the upper surface nearly to the tip; [tribe Vernonieae].
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........42 Pappus bristles in 1 series; heads disciform (the outer flowers of the head pistillate, the inner flowers of the head functionally staminate); leaf margins toothed; corollas white to cream or pink (rarely purple)
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........42 Pappus bristles in 2 series, the outer much shorter; heads discoid (all flowers bisexual and fertile); leaf margins toothed or entire; corollas purple or deep pink (rarely pale pink or white)
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........41 Style branch appendages deltate, lanceolate, or terete to clavate, the style branch YYYY.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 43 Style branch appendages deltate or lanceolate; style branches stigmatic along 2 lines from near the base to the attachment of the appendage; [tribe Astereae].
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..44 Disc flowers 8-20; pappus bristles in 2 series; [GA and Panhandle FL west to AL, GA, and LA]
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 43 Style branch appendages terete to clavate; style branches "eupatorious", linear to slightly clavate-thickened at the tip, the stigmatic surface XXXX; [tribe Eupatorieae]
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....45 Lower stem leaves with at least a few divergent teeth; phyllaries elongate-striate nerved
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....45 All leaves entire (or at most with a few obscure crenations); phyllaries lacking elongate striations, the nerving not apparent.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......46 Heads borne in spiciform or racemiform arrays (all heads directly attached to a central access of the capitulescence)
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......46 Heads borne in corymbiform, paniculiform, or thyrsiform arrays (at least some heads borne on secondary branches of the capitulescence.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........48 Heads 3.5-6 mm tall; phyllaries 5-12 in 1-2 (-3) series; [Coastal Plain, NC to FL to e. LA].
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 49 Stem with punctate glands; peduncles punctate-glandular and also hirsutulous; pappus bristles in 2 series; [of FL peninsula]
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 49 Stem eglandular, glabrous or spreading-hirsute; peduncles glabrous or stipitate-glandular; pappus bristles in 1 series; [widespread in the Coastal Plain].
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........48 Heads 3-20 mm tall; phyllaries 15-50+ in 3-7 series; [collectively widespread].
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..50 Heads borne in corymbiform arrays; involucres 6-12 (15) mm tall; receptacles paleate, at least towards the periphery of the receptacle; pappus of 35-40 barbellulate to barbellate bristles; [nearly restricted to the Coastal Plain]
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..50 Heads borne in paniculiform or thyrsiform arrays; involucres 3-20 mm tall; receptacles epaleate; pappus of 12-40 coarsely barbellate, subplumose, or plumose bristles; [widespread in our region]

Key to Asteraceae, Key K: Herbaceous composites with the leaves alternate or basal and the heads radiate, the rays yellow, orange, red

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1 Pappus absent, or of crowns (coroniform) or scales (the scales entire, erose, aristate, or occasionally lacerate, but ultimately with broadened bases compared to bristles).
..2 Stems usually winged from decurrent leaf bases (except H. amarum, which bares stems with copious, mostly entire, linear leaves)
..2 Stems not winged.
....3 Pappus absent.
......4 Phyllaries in (3-) 4-9+ series, usually with apices hooked or looped; pappus of setiform awns or scales but falling (thus sometimes appearing absent post maturation)
......4 Phyllaries in 2-4 series, usually with apices not notably hooked or looped; pappus absent entirely (not just falling).
........5 Receptacles pitted and hairy (the hairs swollen and apically hooked); [primarily native in western portion of our area]
........5 Receptacles not pitted, nor hairy; [waifs].
..........6 Leaves usually 1-3 pinnately lobed; receptacles epaleate
..........6 Leaves entire or sometimes toothed, but not pinnately lobed; receptacle epaleate or sometimes with short bristles or setae
....3 Pappus coroniform or of scales.
............ 7 Heads smaller, the involucres (excluding phyllary apices) 0.8-7.5 mm in diameter.
............ ..8 Ray floret laminae fan-shaped and apically 3 or 5 lobed (the laminae sometimes very short and not surpassing phyllary length in Hymenoxys).
............ ....9 Cauline leaves pronounced, simple or with 3-19+ lobes (the lobes linear-filiform); cypselae villous or pubescent (rarely glabrous); heads radiant, sometimes appearing nearly discoid due to diminutive or inconspicuous ray florets
............ ....9 Leaves strongly basally-disposed (except T. linearifolia, with basal and cauline leaves, the cauline leaves not with linear lobes), entire or with 2-6 teeth (or sometimes lobes); cypselae moderately to densely pubescent; heads clearly radiate
............ ..8 Ray floret laminae not apically 3-5 lobed.
............ ......10 Leaves pinnately compound with linear leaf segments 1-3 mm wide (if not pinnate as in T. tephroleuca, then plants ashy white subshrubs); calyculus present (occasionally absent), of linear bracts subtending the involucre; plants with translucent oil glands evident throughout most parts; [subtribe Pectidinae]
............ ......10 Leaves simple (if also sometimes subshrubs, these not ashy white as in Gutierrezia); calyculus absent; plants sometimes gland-dotted on leaves (or sometimes also with resinous phyllaries, but not with oil glands throughout).
............ ........11 Plants annual, with a strong terpenoid smell when crushed, the leaves and phyllaries glutinous; phyllaries 12-15 in 1-2(-3) series
............ ........11 Plants annuals, biennials, or perennials, if annuals then not bearing a strong terpenoid smell when crushed, the leaves sometimes glutinous but not also the phyllaries; phyllaries 4-40 in 2-4 series (Gutierrezia) or 5-12 in 1-2 series (Psilostrophe).
............ ..........12 Stems glabrous, or papillate-scabrous (but not clearly gray-green in appearance); involucre 1.5-5.5 mm in diameter; plants either annuals or subshrubs; phyllaries 4-40 in 2-4 series
............ ..........12 Stems arachno-villous, appearing gray-green; involucre 4-7 mm in diameter; plants biennials or perennials; phyllaries 5-12 in 1-2 series
............ 7 Heads larger, the involucres (8-) 10-20+ mm in diameter.
............ ............ 13 Phyllaries in (3-) 4-9+ series; cypselae glabrous; leaves often toothed (and also often ovate to oblanceolate).
............ ............ ..14 Pappus in 2 series, the outer of 25-40 barbellate bristles, the inner of 8-15+ setiform awns or subulate scales 7-10 mm long
............ ............ ..14 Pappus in 1 series, of mostly 2-3 smooth to setiform awns OR subulate scales 2.5-8 mm long (sometimes with up to 6-8 total barbellulate/setiform awns in G. squarrosa, G. lanceolata, and G. texana)
............ ............ 13 Phyllaries in 2-3 series (2-3+ in Gaillardia); cypselae villous or otherwise sparsely to densely pubescent; leaves entire, toothed, or sometimes pinnately lobed (the lobes linear, as in Hymenoxys).
............ ............ ....15 Receptacles entirely epaleate, not bearing any minute setae; ray florets (apical portion of the laminae) 3-5 lobed.
............ ............ ......16 Cauline leaves pronounced, simple or with 3-19+ lobes (the lobes linear-filiform); cypselae villous or pubescent (rarely glabrous); heads radiant, sometimes appearing nearly discoid due to diminutive or inconspicuous ray florets
............ ............ ......16 Leaves strongly basally-disposed (except T. linearifolia, with basal and cauline leaves, the cauline leaves not with linear lobes), entire or with 2-6 teeth (or sometimes lobes); cypselae moderately to densely pubescent; heads clearly radiate
............ ............ ....15 Receptacles typically with spine-like setae or enations (except Gaillardia aestivalis) or very short bristles (i.e. not appearing "chaffy" overall, but these setae apparent upon dissection of the heads); ray florets (apical portion of the laminae) either unlobed (Amblyolepis) or 3-5 lobed (Gaillardia).
............ ............ ........17 Plants sweet-scented; cypselae prominently 10-ribbed; pappus scale apices rounded to acuminate but never aristate; heads borne singly or in paniculiform arrays; ray florets (the laminae) yellow; phyllaries usually not strongly reflexed in fruit
............ ............ ........17 Plants not sweet-scented; cypselae ca. 4-angled but lacking numerous prominent ribs; pappus scale apices often aristate; heads borne singly; ray florets (the laminae) often bicolored; phyllaries usually strongly reflexed in fruit
1 Pappus of barbellate to barbellulate bristles (sometimes also with shorter outer scales).
............ ............ ..........18 Phyllaries in one series.
............ ............ ............ 19 Plants herbaceous vines; flowers conspicuously orange; calyculus of lanceolate-filiform bractlets; [non-native, FL and TX]
............ ............ ............ 19 Plants not herbaceous vines; flowers primarily yellow (sometimes yellow-orange); calyculus absent (or 1-2 indistinct bractlets); [natives or non-natives, collectively widespread]
............ ............ ............ ..20 Pappus bristles red, brown, or purple colored; flowers yellow to yellow-orange; [waif, MD]
............ ............ ............ ..20 Pappus bristles white; flowers primarily yellow; [native and non-native, widespread]
............ ............ ............ ....21 Disc florets sterile; stems bracteate but lacking leaves, the leaves simple; [non-native of disturbed habitats, ne US]
............ ............ ............ ....21 Disc florets fertile; stems with leaves, the leaves simple to pinnately lobed (or otherwise compound); [natives and non-natives, widespread and of both intact and disturbed habitats].
............ ............ ............ ......22 Stem leaves deeply toothed, pinnately lobed, or otherwise compound, not clasping or weakly so; plants perennial or rarely annuals (P. glabella)
............ ............ ............ ......22 Stem leaves shallowly toothed to subentire, conspicuously clasping the stem; plants annuals
............ ............ ..........18 Phyllaries in 2-8+ series.
............ ............ ............ ........23 Plants herbaceous vines; flowers conspicuously orange
............ ............ ............ ........23 Plants not herbaceous vines; flowers primarily yellow (sometimes yellow-orange)
image of plant
Show caption*© Scott Ward
............ ............ ............ ..........24 Pappus double, of both an inner (more apparent) series of longer bristles and an outer series consisting of short triangular scales or significantly shorter (and often coarser) bristles, these sitting more or less at the base of the inner pappus bristles (in Prionopsisthe outer bristles subtend the inner awns or scales).
............ ............ ............ ............ 25 Plants usually gland-dotted; phyllaries often looped/hooked; outer bristles subtending inner scales; involucres globose/hemispheric
............ ............ ............ ............ 25 Plants glabrous, sericeous, or glandular; phyllaries often ascending, sometimes squarrose; pappus scales subtending inner bristles; involucres variously shaped.
............ ............ ............ ............ ..26 Outer pappus of scales connate, usually forming cups; ray laminae often reduced, 1.5-2+ mm long; [waifs; tribe Inuleae]
............ ............ ............ ............ ..26 Outer pappus not connate; ray laminae prominent, usually > 3 mm longer; [native, sometimes weedy; tribe Astereae].
............ ............ ............ ............ ....27 Ray florets with pappus (similar to that of disc florets).
............ ............ ............ ............ ......28 Leaves parallel-veined, linear and grasslike
............ ............ ............ ............ ......28 Leaves pinnately veined, usually broader and not grass-like.
............ ............ ............ ............ ........29 Plants biennials or perennials, with taproots or fibrous-rooted; phyllaries linear-lanceolate to oblanceolate; inner pappus whitish to stramineous, outer pappus linear to narrowly-triangular
............ ............ ............ ............ ........29 Plants annuals with taproots; phyllaries linear to linear-lanceolate; inner pappus yellow to rust-colored proximally, outer pappus scale-like; disc florets bisexual and fertile (B. pilosa) or functionally staminate (B. hirtella)
............ ............ ............ ..........24 Pappus simple, of only bristles and not with an additional series of reduced bristles or scales (sometimes pappus in 2-4 unequal series, or outer bristles progressively shortened in Xanthisma).
............ ............ ............ ............ ..........30 Leaves toothed and tipped with spines (spinulose).
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 31 Phyllaries spine-tipped with accompanying white margins (if lacking spine tips as in X. texanum, then inner phyllaries abruptly enlarged into ovate or sometimes elliptic blades 2-5 mm wide)
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 31 Phyllaries not spine-tipped and lacking conspicuous white margins, 0.9-1.7 mm wide.
............ ............ ............ ............ ..........30 Leaves entire or if toothed, not tipped with conspicuous spines (as in Grindelia).
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..32 Ray florets longer, 1.5-3+ cm long; anthers tailed; leaf bases conspicuously cordate-clasping
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..32 Ray florets shorter, < 1.5 cm long (to 1.6 cm in Grindelia lanceolata); anthers not tailed (instead obtuse to sagittate), or if sagittate-tailed, then plants foul-smelling (as in Dittrichia, a waif in ne. US).
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....33 Plants viscid, foul-smelling; anthers sagittate-tailed at the base [waif, ne. US]
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....33 Plants scentless, or if bearing an odor, not foul-smelling; anthers cuneate to sagittate at the base, but not tailed; [widespread natives, rarely e. US waifs otherwise native to w. US].
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......34 Pappus bristles > 60 (30-80+ in Senecio), white-colored.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........35 Stem leaves deeply toothed, pinnately lobed, or otherwise compound, not clasping or weakly so; plants perennial or rarely annuals (P. glabella)
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........35 Stem leaves shallowly toothed to subentire, conspicuously clasping the stem; plants annuals
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......34 Pappus bristles 10-45 (30-80+ in Senecio), white, tawny, or reddish-brown colored.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........36 Phyllaries in 1-2 equal/subequal series (outer minute bracts sometimes present); stem leaves shallowly toothed to subentire, conspicuously clasping the stem; plants annuals; [tribe Senecioneae)
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........36 Phyllaries in 3+ series, unequal (or rarely subequal); [tribe Astereae].
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 37 Heads small and cylindrical, taller than wide; rays inconspicuous or the laminae often shorter.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..38 Inflorescences flat-topped corymbs; leaves resinous-punctate, narrow, entire, sessile or subsessile
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..38 Inflorescences rarely flat-topped; leaves not resinous-punctate, usually not linear, often toothed and petiolate
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 37 Heads larger, globose, hemispheric, or broadly conic (2 cm+ broad in Grindelia), usually wider than long; rays conspicuous.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....39 Leaves entire, sessile throughout; faces of cypselae strigose to sericeous; pappus persistent, of 30-35 tawny to reddish-brown barbellate bristles
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....39 Leaves toothed, proximal leaves petiolate; faces of cypselae variously textured (smooth, striate, furrowed, or rugose); pappus readily falling, of 2-3 smooth to setiform awns OR subulate scales 2.5-8 mm long (sometimes with up to 6-8 total barbellulate/setiform awns in G. squarrosa, G. lanceolata, and G. texana)
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