Colors

Data mode

Account

Login
Sign up

X
Keyed in multiple places:

Click the number at the start of a key lead to highlight both that lead and its corresponding lead. Click again to show only the two highlighted leads. Click a third time to return to the full key with the selected leads still highlighted.

Key F: woody angiosperms with alternate, compound leaves

Copy permalink to share | Check for keys that lead to this key

1 Leaves 2-foliolate or 1-foliolate (and then deeply notched).
..2 Leaves 1-foliolate (2-lobed)
..2 Leaves 2-foliolate
1 Leaves 3-, 5-, to many-foliolate.
....3 Leaves 3-foliolate.
......4 Plant a liana, climbing by twining, by tendrils, or by adventitious roots.
........5 Leaves untoothed and unlobed
........5 Leaves coarsely toothed or lobed. {add Eleutherococcus trifoliatus ARALIACEAE}
..........6 Leaflets obovate or broadly elliptic (broadest at or above the middle), the teeth or lobes primarily or solely in the apical half of the leaf; plant climbing by leaf-opposed tendrils
..........6 Leaflets orbicular or ovate (broadest at the middle or below the middle), the teeth or lobes primarily or solely in the basal half of the leaf; plant climbing by stem twining or by dense, reddish adventitious roots.
............ 7 Plant climbing by the stem twining; [plant not actually woody, but so robust as to often be assumed to be so]
............ 7 Plant climbing by dense, reddish adventitious roots attaching the stem to tree trunks or rock outcrops
......4 Plant a shrub (sometimes scrambling or occasionally high-climbing with the support of other vegetation, but lacking the specialized climbing structures listed above).
............ ..8 Stems armed with small prickles or stout thorns.
............ ....9 Stems with stout thorns at the nodes; fruit a hesperidium (orange-like, but densely hairy)
............ ....9 Stems with many small prickles along the internodes; fruit either a legume, or an aggregate of drupelets, or a hip.
............ ......10 Leaflets with 2 rounded lateral lobes near the base, otherwise entire; fruit a legume
............ ......10 Leaflets serrate and sometimes also cleft; fruit either an aggregate of drupelets or a hip
............ ........11 Leaflets serrulate, crenulate, serrate, with a few coarse and jagged teeth (spine-tipped or not), or shallowly lobed.
............ ..........12 Leaflets serrate, with a few coarse and jagged teeth (spine-tipped or not), or shallowly lobed.
............ ............ 13 Leaflets with 2 prominent, rounded lobes near the base; fruit a legume; flowers > 3 cm long, corollas bilaterally symmetrical, red, in a terminal raceme
............ ............ 13 Leaflets serrate and sometimes also cleft, or with a few coarse and jagged teeth (spine-tipped or not); fruit either a tan or red drupe or a red berry; flowers < 1 cm across, corollas radially symmetrical, green, yellow, or white, in axillary or terminal panicles or racemes
............ ............ ..14 Leaflets with a few spine-tipped teeth; fruit a red berry; [TX westwards]
............ ............ ..14 Leaflets not spine-tipped; fruit a red or tan drupe; [collectively widespread]
............ ............ ......16 Leaflets < 2 cm long; stems and branches dark green
............ ............ ......16 Leaflets 5-15 cm long; stems and branches tan to brown
............ ............ ........17 Leaves pinnately trifoliolate, a rachis present as an extension of the petiole past the point of attachment of the 2 lateral leaflets, the terminal leaflet borne on a petiolule at the terminus of the rachis, with an obvious joint present between the rachis and petiolule
............ ............ ........17 Leaves palmately trifoliolate, the terminal leaflet typically with a longer petiolule than the lateral leaflets, but lacking a rachis (the petiolule of the terminal leaflet attached at the same point as the 2 lateral leaflets and unjointed)
....3 Leaves with 5-many leaflets (poorly developed leaves in some species with only 3 leaflets).
............ ............ ............ 19 Leaves palmately-pedately 5-foliolate (the lateral 2 leaflets on each side borne on a common Y-shaped stalk).
............ ............ ............ 19 Leaves palmately compound (all the leaflets attached at a single point).
............ ............ ............ ........23 Stems armed with prickles scattered in the internodes
............ ............ ..........18 Leaves pinnately, bipinnately, or complexly compound.
............ ............ ............ ............ 25 Leaves at least in part pinnate-pinnatifid, 2-pinnate, or otherwise more complexly compound than 1-pinnate.
............ ............ ............ ............ ....27 Leaves pinnate-pinnatifid, with 7-19 leaflets, each leaflet pinnatifid into narrowly lanceolate lobes; {upper leaflet surface dark green, lower surface silvery with gray sericeous pubescence}
............ ............ ............ ............ ........29 Plant armed with prickles on the stem, and sometimes also on the axes and main veins of the leaves
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 31 Foliage green; leaflets ovate, acute at the tip; flowers 3-merous, the tepals white or cream; fruit a red berry
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 31 Foliage blue-green; leaflets obovate, rounded or notched at the tip; flowers 4-5-merous, the sepals green, the petals yellow; fruit a capsule
............ ............ ............ ............ ..........30 Plant a tree, > 3 m tall when flowering and fruiting.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......34 Leaves even-pinnately compound (generally with 2 leaflets at the apex of the rachis, these obviously and symmetrically paired).
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........35 Leaflets rounded to obtuse at the apex (or acute to acuminate in Gymnocladus); fruit a legume; inflorescence various, but not as below
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........35 Leaflets acuminate at the apex; fruit a drupe or capsule; inflorescence a panicle with many, small, radially symmetrical flowers.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....39 Stems armed with prickles or stipular or nodal spines; leaves often also with prickles.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......40 Leaves with conspicuous leafy stipules, often adnate to the petiole; plant a liana or small to medium shrub; leaves serrate, often sharply and prominently so; leaves not strongly aromatic when fresh, lacking pellucid punctate glands on the surface
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......40 Leaves lacking leafy stipules; plant a tree or tall shrub; leaves entire or obscurely crenate or serrate; plant a tree or tall shrub; leaves either strongly aromatic when fresh, with conspicuous pellucid punctate glands or not aromatic and not pellucid-punctate.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........41 Leaves not aromatic when fresh, lacking pellucid punctate glands; leaves never with prickles on the rachis; leaflet apices rounded
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........41 Leaves strongly aromatic when fresh, with conspicuous pellucid punctate glands; leaves often with prickles on the rachis; leaflet apices usually acuminate
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....39 Stems unarmed (leaflets with spinose margins in some species, or the stem with dense hispid hairs).
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....45 Leaves with stipules; flowers bilaterally symmetrical, papilionaceous, white, cream, or pink; stamens 10; fruit a legume; [collectively widespread in our area]
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....45 Leaves without stipules; flowers radially symmetrical, whitish; stamens 5 or 10; fruit a single-seeded drupe; [FL peninsula]
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........47 Flowers bilaterally symmetrical, papilionaceous (reduced in Amorpha to a single petal); stamens 10; fruit a legume; leaves with stipules.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........47 Flowers radially symmetrical, stamens 4-5; fruit either a drupe (Anacardiaceae), or a 1-3-seeded berry or a samara (Picramniaceae); leaves without stipules.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..50 Leaflets with obscure crenations, not as below nor bearing glands; leaf rachis narrowly to conspicuously winged, especially towards the tip; fruit a drupe; plant a shrub or small tree
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..50 Leaflets (especially the basal and on the basalscopic side) with 1-5 large rounded teeth, each bearing a prominent dark green gland; leaf rachis not winged; fruit a schizocarp, with 2-5 samaroid mericarps; plant a medium to large tree
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........53 Plant a tree, freely branched; rhizome inner bark not brightly colored; flowers unisexual, the male flowers in catkins, the female flowers solitary or few in a spike, the perianth greenish or tan and inconspicuous; fruit a nut covered by a dehiscent or indehiscent involucre
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........53 Plant a short shrub, < 1 m tall, little branched; rhizome inner bark of fresh plants bright yellow; flowers bisexual, petals absent, the 5 petaloid sepals maroon; inflorescence a drooping panicle from the base of the new year’s growth; fruit an aggregate of follicles

Key to Rosaceae, Key D: Shrubs and trees with compound leaves

Copy permalink to share | Check for keys that lead to this key

1 Leaflets < 5 mm wide, entire; densely-branched shrub to 1 m tall; flowers yellow; [tribe Potentilleae]
1 Leaflets > 10 mm wide, serrate or crenate; shrubs, trees, or woody vines (see below); flowers white, pink, or purplish (rarely yellow in Rosa).
..2 Leaves 1-pinnately compound, generally with > 11 leaflets; inflorescence a terminal panicle or corymb with numerous (> 100) flowers, the petals white and < 4 mm long; fruit a pome or follicle; upright tree or shrub with unarmed stems.
....3 Inflorescence a panicle; fruit a follicle; shrub, to 2 m tall; [tribe Sorbarieae]
....3 Inflorescence a corymb; fruit a pome; tree, generally > 2 m tall; [tribe Pyreae]
..2 Leaves palmately or 1-pinnately compound, generally with < 11 leaflets; inflorescences axillary or terminal panicles or corymbs with few (<15) flowers, the petals white, pink, or purplish (rarely yellow) and > 6 mm long; fruit a hip or aggregate of drupelets; arching or upright shrubs or climbing or sprawling woody vines, the stems usually armed with prickles.
......4 Fruit a hip, developing from a globose to urceolate hypanthium, enclosing the ovaries and achenes, except for the apical orifice; leaflets usually acute to obtuse at the apex; leaflet margins crenulate or serrulate; [tribe Roseae]
......4 Fruit an aggregate of drupelets, developing from a flattish or hemispheric hypanthium, with the ovaries and drupelets exposed; leaflets usually acuminate at the apex; leaflet margins serrate or doubly serrate; [tribe Rubeae]
Cite as...