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Key to Malvaceae

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1 Petals absent; carpels 5, whorled, each expanding into a stalked and papery structure which bears 1-4 pea-sized seeds along its margins; tree; leaves 10-40 cm wide, 3-5 lobed, the lobes acute, the margins entire; [subfamily Sterculioideae]
1 Petals present; carpels 1, 5, or many, united or separate, but not as above; tree, shrub, or herb; leaves< 15 cm wide, lobed or unlobed, but if lobed then also serrate.
  2 Epicalyx of bracts (immediately subtending the calyx) absent.
    3 Stamens 3 or 5; [subfamily Byttnerioideae].
      4 Flowers solitary or in 2-3-flowered fascicles in leaf axils; petals hooded, caducous; capsules with prickles 0.3-0.5 mm long
      4 Flowers in capitate or umbellate clusters of > 4 flowers; petals flat, persistent; capsules smooth or hairy.
        5 Ovary with 5 carpels and 5 styles; capsule with 5-10 seeds; corolla pink, purple, or white
        5 Ovary with 1 carpel and 1 style; capsule with 1 seed; corolla orange to yellow
    3 Stamens >10.
          6 Stamens free.
             7 Tree; fruit a woody drupe; [subfamily Tilioideae]
             7 Herb or shrub; fruit a capsule; [subfamily Grewioideae, tribe Apeibeae].
               8 Leaves rounded or subcordate at base, acute at apex; fruit much longer than broad, unarmed
          6 Stamens united into a staminal column adnate to the corolla at its base; [subfamily Malvoideae; tribe Malveae].
                   10 Leaves palmately and deeply cleft (> 9/10s of the way to the midrib) into linear segments
                   10 Leaves unlobed or lobed (if lobed , < 4/5’s of the way to the midrib and the lobes broad).
                     11 Flowers many in a terminal panicle; corolla white; style branches filiform, the stigmatic surface elongate along the inner side of the branches; leaves >10 cm wide, deeply 5-9-lobed; plants 1-2 m tall
                     11 Flowers solitary or a few in leaf axils (or many in a terminal panicle in Sida hermaphrodita); corolla blue-purple, yellow, or white; style branches truncate, the stigmatic surface terminal and capitate; leaves < 2 cm wide, unlobed (or leaves > 10 cm wide and deeply 3-7-lobed in Sida hermaphrodita); plants < 1 m tall (or 1-4 m tall in Sida hermaphrodita).
                       12 Corolla blue to purple; lateral walls of the carpels disintegrating at maturity of the fruit
                          13 Leaves deeply palmately lobed; plants 1-2 (-4) m tall; petals white
                          13 Leaves unlobed; plants 0.2-1 m tall; petals yellow
  2 Epicalyx of bracts (immediately subtending the calyx) present.
                              15 Fruit fleshy and berry-like; [subfamily Malvoideae; tribe Hibisceae]
                                16 Calyx spathe-like, soon falling after anthesis; [subfamily Malvoideae; tribe Hibisceae]
                                  17 Style branches short, erect, the stigmas nearly sessile; epicalyx bracts 3, large, foliaceous, and incised; seeds bearing long white fibers; [subfamily Malvoideae; tribe Gossypiae]
                                  17 Style branches elongate, spreading; epicalyx bracts 6-15, linear to lanceolate and untoothed; seeds sometimes pubescent but not with long white fibers; [subfamily Malvoideae; tribe Hibisceae].
                                    18 Locules of the fruit several-seeded; capsule longer than broad, the apex pointed or rounded; petals yellow, white, red, or pink (if pink, then > 4 cm long, or the plant a shrub)
                                    18 Locules of the fruit 1-seeded; capsule depressed-globose, indented at the apex; petals pink, 2-4 cm long
                            14 Fruit of radially disposed, 1- to several-seeded, dry carpels that split apart at maturity.
                                         20 Shrubs or woody herbs, with leaves not basally disposed; flowers in axils of well-developed leaves; fruit spiny (or lacking spines in Pavonia hastata); [of SC southward]; [subfamily Malvoideae; tribe Hibisceae].
                                           21 Bracts of epicalyx 5, fused basally; fruit covered with numerous glochidiate spines; leaves with 1-3 foliar nectaries (glands) on undersurface near base
                                         20 Herbs, with leaves basally disposed; flowers in terminal bracteates spikes or racemes; fruit lacking spines; [collectively widespread]; [subfamily Malvoideae; tribe Malveae].
                                             22 Plant 1.5-3 m tall, usually unbranched; flowers 6-10 cm across
                                       19 Bracts of the epicalyx 2-3; [subfamily Malvoideae; tribe Malveae].
                                                 24 Herb 0.5-2.5 m tall, upright; petals 2-3 cm long, pink-purple; carpels not beaked at the tip
                                                 24 Herb to 0.5 m tall, prostrate to ascending; petals 0.3-0.5 cm long, orange-red; carpels beaked at the tip
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