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Keyed in multiple places:

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Key K: holoparasites and holomycotrophs

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1 Stems thin, flexible, twining, yellow to bright orange; plants parasitic on the stems of other vascular plants via above-ground haustoria.
..2 Inflorescence a spike; flowers 3-merous (sepals 6, petals 0, stamens 9, carpel 1); fruit a 1-seeded fleshy drupe; fresh plants aromatic; [Basal Angiosperms]; [peninsular FL only]
..2 Inflorescence a cymose cluster; flowers 4-5-merous (sepals 4-5, petals 4-5, stamens 4-5, carpels 2 and fused); fruit a 1-4-seeded dry capsule; fresh plants not aromatic; [Eudicots]; [widespread]
1 Stems erect, stiff, straight, variously colored (tan, red, violet, brown, white, pink); plants mycotrophic (or indirectly parasitic via a fungal intermediary), attached to fungi underground.
....3 Flowers radially symmetrical.
......4 Scale leaves alternate (spiral); [collectively widespread]
......4 Scale leaves opposite; [s. FL only]
....3 Flowers bilaterally symmetrical.
........5 Petals 3, separate; stamen 1; capsule 1-locular, pendent when mature, opening by 3 slits; [Monocots]
........5 Petals fused into a tube, with 4-5 lobes; stamens 4; capsule 2-locular, ascending or spreading when mature, opening by 2 valves; [Eudicots]

Key L: epiphytic angiosperms {Note that epiphytic Pteridophytes are not re-keyed here; seek them in Keys A4 and A6}

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1 Stems yellow to bright orange, lacking leaves
1 Stems green or brown, with leaves (scale-like or larger).
..2 Leaves opposite, orbicular or oblanceolate, rounded at the apex; [Eudicots]
..2 Leaves alternate, either orbicular or oblanceolate (rounded at the apex), or scale-like, or elongate and tapering, or lanceolate-elliptic.
....3 Leaves orbicular, rounded at the apex; [Basal Angiosperms]
....3 Leaves either scale-like, or elongate and tapering, or lanceolate-elliptic; [Monocots].
......4 Leaves either scale-like or elongate and tapering; flowers radially symmetrical
......4 Leaves lanceolate-elliptic; flowers bilaterally symmetrical

Key M1: monocots with linear, scale, or narrow leaves (or grasses)

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1 Primary inflorescences of spikelets, these consisting of 1-2-many reduced florets, each subtended by 1-2 scales (and also enclosed in a sac or perigynium in Carex in CYPERACEAE), arrayed spirally or distichously, the spikelets then themselves arrayed in various dense or diffuse secondary or tertiary inflorescences; perianth absent, or reduced to chaff, scales, paddles, or bristles.
..2 Leaf sheaths continuous, lacking a split or only irregularly split in age; leaves usually 3-ranked (sometimes reduced to a sheath with a small scale at the summit; stems triangular in ×-section (or roundish), usually with a pith; flowers spirally arrayed in the spikelet (or distichously arrayed, in e.g. Cyperus, Dulichium, Kyllinga); anthers basifixed
..2 Leaf sheaths generally split lengthwise on the side opposite the leaf blade; leaves usually 2-ranked; stems round or flattened in ×-section, usually hollow; flowers distichously arrayed in the spikelet; anthers versatile
1 Primary inflorescences of dense spikes, spadices, heads, glomerules, or a compound corymb of helicoid cymes; perianth present, often very small and variously colored.
....3 Leaves equitant (the leaves distichous, in a fan-like array, e.g. Iris, each leaf clasping the next above in a basal fold, this uniting above so that the main leaf blade, above the basal fold, has only the lower [abaxial] leaf surface visible because of fusion of the ‘upper’ surfaces).
......4 Inflorescence a very densely flowered spike (spadix), appearing lateral, 1 per plant; fresh plant strongly aromatic
......4 Inflorescence either more diffuse, 1 or several per plant, or terminal and cone-like; fresh plant not aromatic.
........5 Inflorescence brownish or tan, spherical, ovoid, or cylindrical, with numerous scale-like bracts arrayed in a cone; flowers individually conspicuous, a single yellow (to white) flower at a time emerging from each of the scales
........5 Inflorescence more diffuse.
..........6 Inflorescence axis and bracts densely lanuginose
..........6 Inflorescence axis and bracts glabrous or inconspicuously pubescent.
............ 7 Inflorescence or flower groups subtended by well-developed, green or scarious spathaceous bracts; inflorescence either a fan-shaped pair of cymes, or seemingly racemose, or solitary
............ 7 Inflorescence or flower groups not subtended by spathes (though individual flowers may be subtended by small green bracts); inflorescence a raceme, panicle, or corymb.
............ ..8 Inflorescence a corymb of helicoid cymes; corolla yellow, densely tomentose; roots bright red (Lachnanthes) or white to brown (Lophiola).
............ ....9 Stamens 3, longer than the (ascending) tepals inner 3 tepals > 2 mm longer than the outer 3 tepals; rhizomes and roots of fresh plants bright red
............ ....9 Stamens 6, shorter than the (recurved) tepals; inner 3 and outer 3 tepals equal in length; rhizomes at roots of fresh plants white to brown
............ ..8 Inflorescence a terminal raceme (the flowers attached to the rachis in groups of 3 or more in Triantha in TOFIELDIACEAE); corolla white, cream, or yellow, glabrous; roots white or brown.
............ ......10 Flowers yellow; capsule loculicidal
............ ......10 Flowers white (yellow in Harperocallis, endemic to FL Panhandle); capsule septicidal
....3 Leaves not equitant, sometimes distichous, upper and lower surfaces both present.
............ ........11 Inflorescence either a linear spike, terminal, the thicker female portion below, the thinner male portion above, or an ovoid, hemispheric, spherical head or glomerule, 1 or several per plant
............ ..........12 Inflorescence a linear spike, terminal, the thicker female portion below, the thinner male portion above
............ ..........12 Inflorescence an ovoid, hemispheric, or spherical head or glomerule, 1 or several per plant.
............ ............ 13 Flowers in a single head terminating an elongate scape; leaves basal (often with 1-2 much smaller leaves or bladeless sheaths on the lower part of the scape); inflorescence white, tan, pale yellow, gray, or blackish, the head usually as broad as or broader than long, involucrate
............ ............ 13 Flowers in multiple heads, not scapose; leaves basal and usually also prominently cauline; inflorescence green, tan, brown, or reddish, the head spherical, not involucrate.
............ ............ ..14 Flowers bisexual, the flowers in various arrays
............ ............ ..14 Flowers unisexual, the male flowers in a terminal head, the female flowers in heads below the male along a usually zigzag stem
............ ........11 Individual flowers solitary or in more diffuse inflorescences; perianth present, at least one whorl petal-like in size, color, and texture.
............ ............ ....15 Flowers bilaterally symmetrical; stamen 1 or 2; tepals 6; perianth often differentiated into a lip and 5 petaloid tepals
............ ............ ....15 Flowers radially symmetrical (sometimes weakly bilaterally symmetrical); stamens 6 (rarely 3); tepals usually 6 (rarely 3), when 6, either undifferentiated (6 tepals) or differentiated into 3 petals and 3 sepals.
............ ............ ......16 Leaves < 15 mm long, scale-like or linear; leaves cauline.
............ ............ ........17 Leaves (actually cladophylls) clustered, in whorls of (1-) 2-20 (-25); fruit a berry; perianth undifferentiated, of 6 yellow, white, or green tepals
............ ............ ........17 Leaves alternate; fruit a capsule; perianth either differentiated, the 3 petals yellowish-green or maroon, or undifferentiated, the 6 tepals white, blue, or purplish.
............ ............ ..........18 Plants terrestrial, erect; stems and leaves lacking a scaly indumentum; flower solitary, or several to many in heads or racemose cymes; perianth undifferentiated, the 6 tepals white, blue, or purplish
............ ............ ..........18 Plants either epiphytic and pendulous in festoons, or terrestrial, wetland, or aquatic and sprawling; stems and leaves with or without a scaly indumentum; flowers solitary and axillary; perianth differentiated, the 3 petals either yellowish-green or maroon.
............ ............ ............ 19 Plants epiphytic, pendulous in festoons; stems and leaves densely covered by silvery scales; peatls yellowish-green
............ ............ ............ 19 Plants of moist to wet habitats, sprawling or aquatic; stems and leaves not covered by silvery scales; petals maroon
............ ............ ......16 Leaves (at least the larger) > 25 mm long, linear or narrowly lanceolate; leaves basal, basally disposed (or rarely mostly or entirely cauline).
............ ............ ............ ..20 Ovary inferior (or partly inferior; ambiguous taxa keyed both ways).
............ ............ ............ ....21 Inflorescence axillary, a raceme or umbel (or reduced to a single flower); petaloid tepals yellow
............ ............ ............ ....21 Inflorescence terminal; petaloid tepals various (including yellow).
............ ............ ............ ......22 Inflorescence or flower groups subtended by well-developed, green or scarious spathaceous bracts; inflorescence either an umbel, or fan-shaped pair of cymes, or seemingly racemose, or solitary.
............ ............ ............ ........23 Stamens 6; inflorescence an umbel (or sometimes solitary)
............ ............ ............ ........23 Stamens 3; inflorescence either a fan-shaped pair of cymes or seemingly racemose (or rarely solitary (e.g. Crocus)
............ ............ ............ ......22 Inflorescence or flower groups not subtended by spathes (though individual flowers may be subtended by small green bracts; inflorescence a raceme or panicle.
............ ............ ............ ..........24 Leaves fleshy; anthers 12-15 mm long
............ ............ ............ ..........24 Leaves herbaceous; anthers < 5 mm long.
............ ............ ............ ............ 25 Tepals connate into a tube; perianth tube exterior farinose; flowers bisexual, white to bright yellow; inflorescence a raceme
............ ............ ............ ............ 25 Tepals distinct; perianth not farinose; flowers unisexual or bisexual, white, greenish, or creamy; inflorescence a raceme or panicle (raceme of racemes)
............ ............ ............ ..20 Ovary superior (or partly inferior; ambiguous taxa keyed both ways).
............ ............ ............ ............ ..26 Gynoecium of 2 or more pistils, each pistil consisting of 1 carpel and with 1 stigma; [wetland plants].
............ ............ ............ ............ ....27 Inflorescence a terminal raceme, the flowers (fruits) in whorls of 3; perianth differentiated into showy petals and green sepals, the petals white; leaf not differentiated into a sheath and blade separated by a ligule; fruit an aggregate of achenes
............ ............ ............ ............ ....27 Inflorescence a terminal raceme or spike, the flowers (fruits) alternate; perianth not differentiated, consisting of 3 or 6 green or yellow-green tepals; leaf differentiated into an open sheath and blade, with a ligule separating them; fruit an aggregate of achenes or follicles.
............ ............ ............ ............ ......28 Inflorescence ebracteate, with > 10 flowers; leaf without a terminal pore; carpels ascending, appressed to one another
............ ............ ............ ............ ......28 Inflorescence bracteate, with < 10 flowers; leaf with a terminal pore; carpels widely divergent, at nearly right angles to the axis
............ ............ ............ ............ ..26 Gynoecium of 1 pistil, with 2-6 stigmas; [wetland and upland plants].
............ ............ ............ ............ ..........30 Leaves linear, > 15 cm long, hollow or flat; inflorescence an umbel; fresh plants with an oniony odor
............ ............ ............ ............ ..........30 Leaves linear to lanceolate, < 15 (-30) cm long, flat; inflorescence various, not an umbel; fresh plants without oniony odor.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 31 Petals < 2 cm long, white, blue, or pink; leaves alternate
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 31 Petals > 5 cm long, yellow, orange, or red; leaves alternate or whorled
............ ............ ............ ............ ........29 Leaves strictly or primarily basal (the basal leaves persistent, and larger than any stem leaves).
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..32 Perianth differentiated into 3 bright pink petals and 3 green sepals
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..32 Perianth not differentiated, the 6 segments similar in color, shape, and size, of various colors (sometimes pink).
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....33 Tepals brown or green, not at all yellow, white, or otherwise more brightly colored; inflorescence branched and complex
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....33 Tepals white, cream, pink, greenish-yellow, yellow, orange, pink, blue, or blue-brown; inflorescence either a terminal umbel, subtended by spathes or bracts, or a terminal raceme or panicle (or a terminal corymb in Ornithogalum in HYACINTHACEAE), not subtended by spathes or bracts.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......34 Inflorescence a terminal umbel, subtended by spathes or bracts; fresh plants with or without an oniony odor
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......34 Inflorescence a terminal raceme or panicle (or a terminal corymb in Ornithogalum in HYACINTHACEAE), not subtended by spathes or bracts.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........35 Tepals evidently connate, fused at least basally and sometimes nearly their entire length; filaments adnate to the tepals.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........36 Tepals 5-8.5 cm long, yellow to orange; anthers dorsifixed (attached near the middle)
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........36 Tepals 0.2-1.0 0.2-1.2 (-2.0) cm long, white, cream, yellow, blue, or blue-brown; anthers basifixed (attached at the base) or dorsifixed (attached at the back).
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 37 Leaves 4-12 dm long, leathery and somewhat fleshy in texture, erect or ascending
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 37 Leaves < 4 dm long, herbaceous in texture, erect, ascending, or spreading
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..38 Perianth blue or blue-brown, not farinose; leaves 2-7, erect, ascending, or the tips spreading; anthers dorsifixed (attached at the back)
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..38 Perianth white, cream, or yellow, farinose-roughened on the outer surface; leaves typically > 8, spreading to slightly ascending (often forming a flattish rosette); anthers basifixed (attached at the bottom)
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........35 Tepals completely distinct; filaments free (rarely epitepalous).
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....39 Styles 1, lobed only in the upper portion if at all; fruit either loculicidal capsules or berry-like; tepals blue, pink, or white with a broad green central stripe.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......40 Tepals white, with a broad green stripe; inflorescence an umbel or raceme
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........41 Tepals pink, 3-10 mm long; inflorescence a raceme-like dibotrya
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....39 Styles 3, separate to the base; fruit a septicidal capsules (sometimes then also secondarily loculicidal); tepals white, greenish, yellowish, or pink.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........42 Inflorescence ebracteate, lacking bracts subtending pedicels; tepals pink (Helonias) or white to cream (Chamaelirium).
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 43 Flowers white to cream; plants dioecious (individual flowers either male or female)
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........42 Inflorescences bracteate, with bracts subtending individual pedicels and (if they are present) branches of the inflorescence; tepals white, greenish-white, or cream.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..44 Leaves narrowly linear, 1-2.5 mm wide, rigid, keeled, and serrulate; stems and leaves strictly glabrous
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..44 Leaves linear or oblanceolate (rarely narrowly linear), > 2 mm wide, flexible, unkeeled, and with entire margins; stems and leaves pubescent with hairs or scales (except Amianthium)

Key M2: monocots with broad leaves

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1 Leaves compound.
..2 Plants herbaceous; leaves palmately 3-foliolate or pedately compound
..2 Plants woody; leaves either palmately divided or pinnately compound into > 20 segments
1 Leaves simple.
....3 Leaves opposite or whorled, cauline.
......4 Leaves opposite; flowers bilaterally symmetrical
......4 Leaves whorled; flowers radially or bilaterally symmetrical.
........5 Plant with 2 or more leaf-bearing nodes (all nodes whorled or some alternate).
..........6 Leaves broad, < 2× as long as wide, cordate at the base; flowers unisexual and plants dioecious
..........6 Leaves lanceolate, oblanceolate or narrowly elliptic, > 4× as long as wide, cuneate at the base; flowers bisexual and plants hermaphroditic
........5 Plant with a single leaf-bearing node.
............ 7 Leaves in whorls of 3 leaves
............ 7 Leaves in whorls of 5 or more leaves.
............ ..8 Stem floccose, wiry (and at maturity with a second smaller whorl with usually 3 leaves subtending the flowers); flowers radially symmetrical
............ ..8 Stem glabrous, fleshy, never with a second whorl; flowers bilaterally symmetrical
....3 Leaves alternate, either cauline or basal.
............ ....9 Inflorescence a spadix (a dense spike of hundreds of flowers, the rachis thickened and somewhat fleshy) subtended by a spathe (a green, white, orange, yellowish-green, or maroon bract) (spathe missing in Orontium)
............ ....9 Inflorescence otherwise, a raceme, panicle, cyme, umbel, spike, etc., the flowers arrayed in a more diffuse manner, the central rachis not thickened, the inflorescence subtended or not by green or scarious spathes.
............ ......10 Flowers bilaterally symmetrical or asymmetrical; fertile stamens 1 or 2 (or 5 in MUSACEAE), often with several staminodes present as well; tepals 6.
............ ........11 Leaf venation parallel; leaves various in size and shape, if > 3 dm long, then < 1 dm wide; perianth often differentiated into a lip and 5 petaloid tepals
............ ........11 Leaf venation prominently penni-parallel; leaves large, at least some on a plant with blade > 2 dm long.
............ ..........12 Fertile stamens 5-6; leaf blades 6-30 dm long
............ ..........12 Fertile stamen 1; leaf blades 0.5-7 dm long.
............ ............ 13 Leaves spirally arranged.
............ ............ ..14 Leaves lacking ligules; ovary and fruit with warty excrescences
............ ............ ..14 Leaves with 2 stipule-like ligules; ovary and fruit smooth
............ ............ ....15 Leaves jointed and swollen at the summit of the petiole
............ ............ ....15 Leaves neither jointed not swollen at the summit of the petiole
............ ......10 Flowers radially symmetrical (weakly to strongly bilaterally symmetrical in PONTEDERIACEAE); stamens 6 (rarely 3, 4, 5, 9, 12, 15, or 18); tepals usually 6 (rarely 3 or 4), when 6, either undifferentiated (6 or 4 tepals) or differentiated into 3 petals and 3 sepals.
............ ............ ......16 Inflorescence subtended by spathes (well-developed green or scarious bracts).
............ ............ ........17 Perianth not differentiated, consisting of 6 similarly colored and shaped tepals; flowers strongly to slightly bilaterally symmetrical; inflorescence lacking well-developed spathaceous bracts
............ ............ ........17 Perianth differentiated into green sepals and more brightly colored petals; flowers radially symmetrical (or weakly bilaterally symmetrical, as in some Commelina).
............ ............ ..........18 Ovary superior; fruit a capsule; stamens 6; [plants mainly of uplands (Murdannia and sometimes Commelina of wetlands)]
............ ............ ..........18 Ovary inferior; fruit a berry; stamens 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, or 18; [plants of wetlands]
............ ............ ......16 Inflorescence not subtended by spathes, though individual small green bracts sometimes subtending individual flowers.
............ ............ ............ 19 Gynoecium of 2 or more pistils (6 in Butomus); fruit achenes or follicles; inflorescence a raceme or panicle with branching in whorls of 3 OR a bracteate umbel; [wetland plants].
............ ............ ............ ..20 Flowers consisting of white petals and green sepals, with 1-many stamens and 3-many carpels (but not consistently with 9 stamens and 6 carpels); inflorescence a raceme or panicle in whorls of 3, branched; leaf blades flat or terete
............ ............ ............ ..20 Flowers consisting of pink petals and green-pink sepals, usually with 9 stamens and 6 carpels; inflorescence an umbel; leaf blades triquetrous in cross-section
............ ............ ............ 19 Gynoecium of 1 pistil; fruit simple, a capsule or berry; inflorescence various, terminal or axillary, but if a raceme or panicle, not with branching in whorls of 3; [upland (or very rarely wetland) plants].
............ ............ ............ ....21 Leaves basal or basally disposed.
............ ............ ............ ......22 Leaves 2 (rarely 3 in Convallaria in RUSCACEAE).
............ ............ ............ ........23 Inflorescence a raceme; fruit a berry; tepals united, the perianth urceolate
............ ............ ............ ........23 Inflorescence an umbel or a solitary flower; fruit a capsule; tepals separate or basally fused.
............ ............ ............ ..........24 Flowers in an umbel, white; fresh plants with oniony odor
............ ............ ............ ..........24 Flowers solitary, white or yellow; fresh plants without strong odor
............ ............ ............ ............ 25 Inflorescence a terminal umbel; fruit a blue or black berry; tepals white or yellow; flowers bisexual
............ ............ ............ ............ 25 Inflorescence a terminal raceme or panicle; fruit a capsule; tepals white, green, yellowish, or pink; flowers either bisexual (Helonias in HELONIADACEAE), or unisexual and primarily on different plants (dioecious) (Chamaelirium in CHIONOGRAPHIDACEAE), or a mix of bisexual and unisexual staminate flowers (Veratrum in MELANTHIACEAE)
............ ............ ............ ............ ..26 Inflorescences bracteate, with bracts subtending individual pedicels and (if they are present) branches of the inflorescence; tepals white, greenish-white, or cream
............ ............ ............ ............ ..26 Inflorescence ebracteate, lacking bracts subtending pedicels; flowers bisexual (Helonias) or predominantly unisexual and on different plants (dioecious) (Chamaelirium); tepals pink (Helonias) or white to cream (Chamaelirium).
............ ............ ............ ............ ....27 Flowers white to cream; plants dioecious (individual plants either male or female, with all male flowers or all female flowers)
............ ............ ............ ............ ....27 Flowers pink; plants hermaphroditic (individual flowers bisexual)
............ ............ ............ ............ ......28 Leaves both cordate/subcordate (rarely merely rounded at the base) and obviously petiolate.
............ ............ ............ ............ ........29 Inflorescence an axillary many-flowered umbel; fruit a berry; axillary tendrils often present (absent in some species)
............ ............ ............ ............ ........29 Inflorescence an axillary solitary flower, a few-flowered cyme, or a panicle; fruit a capsule (winged in Dioscorea, unwinged in Croomia); axillary tendrils never present (plant not climbing, or climbing by twining).
............ ............ ............ ............ ..........30 Tepals 6; stamens 6; flowers unisexual (and generally on separate plants, therefore dioecious); inflorescence of a solitary flowers or a panicle; ovary inferior; [widespread in our area]
............ ............ ............ ............ ..........30 Tepals 4 (-5); stamens 4 (-5); flowers bisexual; ovary superior; [AL and adjacent GA, FL, and perhaps LA]
............ ............ ............ ............ ......28 Leaves not both cordate/subcordate and petiolate (some with cordate clasping or perfoliate leaf bases). {add [Smilax] SMILACACEAE below}
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 31 Leaves alternate and in whorls at some nodes; flowers orange; tepals > 5 cm long; inflorescence a terminal umbel or single flower
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 31 Leaves strictly alternate; flowers yellow, white, pink, greenish, or maroon; tepals < 5 cm long; inflorescence either a terminal cluster, raceme, panicle or umbel, or an axillary raceme, cluster or solitary flower.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..32 Inflorescence a terminal umbel; flowers slightly zygomorphic, reddish, the tepals 3.5-4.5 cm long
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..32 Inflorescence either a terminal cluster, raceme, or panicle, or an axillary raceme, cluster or solitary flower; flowers actinomorphic, variously colored (most white or yellow), the tepals < 3.5 cm long (except Uvularia grandiflora).
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....33 Leaves arrayed spirally around an erect, unbranched stem; fruit a septicidal capsule; flowers a mixture of bisexual and unisexual (staminate) on a plant; perianth white, greenish white, or maroon.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......34 Leaves basally disposed; leaves not at all to slightly plicate, 1-14 cm wide; tepals glabrous, 4-9 mm long, 1-3 mm wide (3-5 mm wide in M. hybridum), with either conspicuous (M. hybridum) or diffuse (M. parviflorum and M. woodii) glands; filaments fused to the basal claw of the tepal
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......34 Leaves cauline; leaves strongly plicate, 6-15 cm wide; tepals pubescent, 8-13 mm long, 3-5 mm wide, with a conspicuous pair of glands near the base of the tepal blade (these sometimes more or less fused); filaments free from the tepals
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....33 Leaves arrayed distichously (2 ranked) along an arching, unbranched or dichotomously (Y-forking) branched stem; fruit a berry or loculicidal capsule; flowers all bisexual; perianth white, pink, or yellow.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........35 Stems of fertile and sterile individuals simple (never branched); inflorescence a terminal raceme or panicle (Maianthemum) or axillary racemes or clusters of 1-9 flowers (Polygonatum); fruit a berry.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........36 Inflorescence terminal, a raceme or panicle; tepals separate; leaves with 3 main parallel veins, acute to acuminate at the apex; foliage green, not glaucous
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........36 Inflorescence of 1-several axillary flowers; tepals fused; leaves with > 7 main parallel veins, obtuse to acute at the apex; foliage blue-green, glaucous
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........35 Stems of fertile individuals branched (always at least bifurcate), but sterile individuals in some genera characteristically unbranched; inflorescence either of 1 (-2) flower(s) borne in a leaf axil (Uvularia, Streptopus), or of (1) 2 (-3) flowers borne terminally opposite the last leaf (Prosartes); fruit a berry or capsule.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 37 Leaves sessile (though sometimes slightly to strongly clasping); fruit a berry or capsule.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..38 Stem brown, wiry, puberulent; last 2 leaves (near stem tip) on each branch approximate to one another (sometimes subopposite) and with noticeably oblique bases; flowers and fruits terminal on the branches
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..38 Stem green, not wiry, glabrous; last 2 leaves (near stem tip) on each branch no closer together than other leaves, with symmetrical bases; flowers (and fruits) either terminal on the branches or solitary and axillary to most leaves.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....39 Flowers and fruits in single terminal clusters (sometimes appearing axillary, but still only one cluster per branch of the stem); tepals pale to rich yellow
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....39 Flowers and fruits 1 (-2) in the axils of many leaves; tepals white to pink
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