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Key to Galactia

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1 Leaflets 1; [e. TX southwestwards]
1 Leaflets 3-9; [collectively widespread in our region].
..2 Leaflets 5-9.
....3 Leaflets 5-9, leaflets in a conventionally pinnate arrangement; flowers white, 3-11 in a terminal inflorescence; [Coastal Plain of FL, GA, and SC]
....3 Leaflets mostly 5 (3-7 per leaf, most on a plant 5), the 4 non-terminal leaflets at a single node at the summit of the petiole; flowers pink, solitary and axillary; [TX]
..2 Leaflets 3; flowers white, pink, red, or purple.
......4 Stems erect (not prostrate, trailing, or twining), with 4-6 (-8) leaves, usually alternately bent at nodes; inflorescence subsessile, 1-6-flowered
......4 Stems prostrate, trailing, or twining, with numerous leaves (except in depauperate plants), not bent at nodes; inflorescence pedunculate, 1-flowered if sessile or subsessile.
..........6 Corollas 11-14 (-15) mm; stems loosely strigose with short, loosely appressed, retrorse hairs, strongly lignescent
..........6 Corollas 7-11 mm; stems strigose to hirsute or hirsute-pilose, herbaceous to weakly lignescent or (G. striata) strongly lignescent.
............ 7 Banner striped with white lines; [c. and s. FL peninsula, coastal and near-coastal]
............ 7 Banner not striped; [collectively widespread].
............ ..8 Fruits falcate; flowers 1-5, solitary and pedicellate or 2-5 on an inflorescence axis 1-4 (-40) mm long; [TX]
............ ..8 Fruits straight; flowers 1-8 (-16), solitary and pedicellate or 2-8 (-16) on an inflorescence axis 10-150(-280) mm long; [collectively widespread].
............ ....9 Stems strigose with antrorse hairs; leaflets linear-oblong to narrowly oblong or narrowly elliptic, 2-4 (-6) mm wide; [s. FL only]
............ ....9 Stems strigose to hirsute or hirsute-villous with spreading-deflexed to retrorse hairs; leaflets oblong to elliptic or lanceolate, 5-21 (-25) mm wide; [more widely distributed].
............ ......10 Leaflets narrowly oblong to oblong-lanceolate, 6-14 mm wide; fruits 35-65 mm long, seeds 12-15 per fruit; [TX]
............ ......10 Leaflets various (see below), 5-21 (-25) mm wide; fruits 20-52 mm long; seeds 5-11 per fruit; [collectively widespread].
............ ........11 Leaflets mostly elliptic to broadly elliptic, (5-) 10-21 (-25) mm wide, usually widest at the midpoint; stems moderately to densely hirsute to hirsute-villous with spreading-deflexed hairs; corollas 7-10 mm; leaflets thick in texture, not glaucous below
............ ........11 Leaflets mostly ovate to lanceolate, 5-15 (-17) mm wide, widest below the midpoint; stems moderately to sparsely strigose with tightly to loosely appressed, retrorse hairs, sometimes glabrate; corollas 9-14 mm; leaflets thin in texture, usually glaucous below
........5 Stems procumbent at least proximally and variously twining, weakly twining, or not twining towards the tip.
............ ..........12 Stems gray retrorse-strigose; leaflets roundish, 1-1.3× as long as wide; stems 'rooting' at nodes, producing rhizomes; inflorescences of 2 types: 1) aerial inflorescences with chasmogamous flowers, and 2) single, subterranean, cleistogamous flowers that develop into 1-seeded legumes; [TX and southwards]
............ ..........12 Stems variously hairy to glabrous, but not gray retrorse-strigose; leaflets elongate, > 1.5× as long as wide; stems not rooting at nodes; inflorescences all aerial with chasmogamous flowers; [LA and eastwards]
............ ............ 13 Calyx lobes brown to reddish brown on inner surface when dry; corollas distinctly dark reddish when dry, persisting after withering, sometimes still present when fruit is mature
............ ............ 13 Calyx lobes greenish-yellow to tan on inner surface when dry; corollas light whitish to blue, pinkish, or purplish when dry, not persisting after anthesis.
............ ............ ..14 Leaflets subcoriaceous to coriaceous, venation raised on both surfaces.
............ ............ ....15 Leaflets mostly linear-oblong or narrowly oblong, 2-8 (-11) mm wide; [c. and s. peninsular FL only]
............ ............ ....15 Leaflets elliptic, oblanceolate-elliptic, oblong-elliptic, elliptic-lanceolate, or broadly lanceolate, (4-) 7-25 (-32) mm wide; [mainly Coastal Plain, s. NJ south to s. FL, west to s. MS]
............ ............ ......16 Several to most internodes (especially those toward the base) longer than the largest leaflet of adjacent nodes, hairs on the stem 0.1-0.8 mm long; leaflets (4-) 10-25 (-32) mm wide; flowers (3-) 5-15 (-25), rarely 1-2
............ ............ ......16 Internodes only a little longer to usually shorter than the largest leaflet of adjacent nodes, hairs on stems 0.05-0.25 mm long; leaflets (4-) 7-10 (-18) mm wide; flowers solitary and axillary or 2-4
............ ............ ........17 Leaflets (14-) 20-55 × (10-) 15-35 mm; flowers 5-12 (-25)
............ ............ ........17 Leaflets 8-30 × 5-20 mm; flowers solitary and axillary or 2-6.
............ ............ ..........18 Inflorescence axis 10-20 mm; calyces 3-4 mm; corollas 6-7 mm; [Panhandle FL and adjacent s. AL]
............ ............ ..........18 Inflorescence axis (5-) 20-60 (-90) mm; calyces 6-7 mm; corollas 12-15 mm; [s. FL]

Key to Fabaceae, Key K: herbaceous legumes with pinnately trifoliolate leaves [subfamily Faboideae]

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1 Leaflets denticulate (sometimes inconspicuously so); [tribe Trifolieae].
..2 Inflorescences elongate racemes with an axis 5-15 cm long, the flowers well-spaced along the axis, the overall inflorescence much longer than its diameter
..2 Inflorescences umbellate or headlike clusters or short racemes with an axis < 2 cm long, the flowers closely clustered, the overall inflorescence little (if at all) longer than its diameter.
....3 Legumes spirally coiled or curved, often tuberculate or prickly; stems 4-angled towards the tip
....3 Legumes straight or nearly so, never tuberculate or prickly; stems terete or flattened (2-angled) towards the tip
1 Leaflets entire (and sometimes also with 1 or 2 broad lobes), or with scattered, irregular large teeth (Pachyrhizus erosus).
......4 Main stems erect or ascending, not trailing, twining, or otherwise vine-like.
........5 Flowers not papilionaceous (the wings and keel epistemonous, arising terminally or laterally from the stamen tube), barely bilaterally symmetrical; stamens 5, monadelphous; [tribe Amorpheae]
..........6 Plants with separate leafy and flowering stems (the flowering stems naked or nearly so of leaves).
............ 7 Standard bright red, remaining folded, 30-50 mm long; leaves hastately lobed; fruit a torulose legume, 6-20 cm long, the seeds red; [tribe Phaseoleae]
............ 7 Standard white or pink, expanded, 4-8 mm long; leaves not hastate; fruit a flattened loment, < 5 cm long, the seeds drab; [tribe Desmodieae]
..........6 Plants bearing leaves and flowers on the same stems.
............ ..8 Leaves, stems, and/or calyces glandular-punctate.
............ ....9 Corollas pink or lavender/purplish; leaflets estipellate; fruit 1-seeded, indehiscent; [tribe Psoraleae]
............ ....9 Corollas yellow; leaflets stipellate; fruit 2-many-seeded, dehiscent; [tribe Phaseoleae, subtribe Cajaninae]
............ ..8 Leaves, stems, and calyces lacking punctate glands.
............ ......10 Leaflet blades large, at least the largest terminal leaflets on a plant > 5 cm long.
............ ........11 Stipels absent on the petiolules of mature leaflets; stamens monadelphous.
............ ..........12 Fruit a legume (not segmented into 1-seed dispersal units), hairy but the hairs not hooked; [plants cultivated as garden plants, rare as waifs]
............ ..........12 Fruit a loment (separating into single-seeded segments), uncinulate (with hooked hairs, the fruits attaching to hairs or clothes as 'stick-tights'); [plants widespread, common]
............ ............ 13 Fruit a loment (separating into single-seeded segments), uncinulate (with hooked hairs, the fruits attaching to hairs or clothes as 'stick-tights'); [plants widespread, common]
............ ............ 13 Fruit a legume (not segmented into 1-seed dispersal units), hairy but the hairs not hooked; [plants cultivated as crops or garden plants, rare as waifs]
............ ............ ..14 sKeel of corolla not coiled; stipules inconspicuous; [soy beans]
............ ............ ..14 Keel of corolla coiled 1-3 turns; stipules conspicuous, persistent, striate; [bush green beans or lima beans]
............ ......10 Leaflet blades smaller, all on a plant < 5 cm long.
............ ............ ......16 Fruit a loment (separating into single-seeded segments), uncinulate (with hooked hairs, the fruits attaching to hairs or clothes as 'stick-tights')
............ ............ ......16 Fruit a several- to many-seeded legume, glabrous to hairy (but not uncinulate)
............ ............ ....15 Stipels absent on the petiolules of mature leaflets.
............ ............ ........17 Fruits dehiscent, a legume with 2 or more seeds.
............ ............ ..........18 Terminal leaflet very similar in size as the 2 lateral leaflets; banner petal prominently striate-veined
............ ............ ..........18 Terminal leaflet 2× or more as long as the 2 lateral leaflets; banner petal evenly colored
............ ............ ........17 Fruits indehiscent: either 1-seeded, or a loment with 2 or more one-seeded (indehiscent) segments.
............ ............ ............ 19 Petioles fused most of length with amplexicaul stipules, the leaves thus appearing sessile or nearly so; corollas lemon to orangy yellow; flowers subsessile; fruit a loment of 2 segments, the terminal segment fertile, the lower segment either sterile or fertile
............ ............ ............ 19 Petioles free from stipules, leaves evidently petiolate; corollas white to pink; flowers pedicellate; fruit either 1-seeded, or a loment normally with 3+ segments
............ ............ ............ ..20 Fruit a loment, with 1-3 segments; terminal leaflets 3-10 cm long, 1-1.5× as long as wide; stamens monadelphous
............ ............ ............ ..20 Fruit 1-seeded; terminal leaflets 1-5 cm long, 1.2-8× as long as wide; stamens diadelphous (9 and 1)
......4 Main stems trailing, twining, creeping, or climbing or sprawling over other vegetation.
............ ............ ............ ....21 Leaves, stems, and/or calyces glandular-punctate; corollas yellow.
............ ............ ............ ....21 Leaves, stems, and calyces lacking punctate glands; corollas yellow, pink, purplish, white, red, blue.
............ ............ ............ ......22 Leaflet blades smaller, all on a plant < 5 cm long.
............ ............ ............ ........23 Stipels absent on the petiolules of mature leaflets.
............ ............ ............ ..........24 Fruit a loment of 2 segments, the terminal segment fertile, the lower segment either sterile or fertile; corollas lemon to orangy yellow
............ ............ ............ ..........24 Fruit 1-seeded; corollas pink-purplish to white, or bronze to brick-red.
............ ............ ............ ............ ..26 Fruit a loment (separating into single-seeded segments), uncinulate (with hooked hairs, the fruits attaching to hairs or clothes as 'stick-tights').
............ ............ ............ ............ ....27 Flowers in axillary or terminal racemes; leaflets rotund, broadly ovate, broadly elliptic, or narrowly elliptic, the larger > 1 cm long.
............ ............ ............ ............ ....27 Flowers in axillary clusters; leaflets broadly obovate, 0.5-1 cm long
............ ............ ............ ............ ..26 Fruit a legume, dehiscent (at least tardily), unsegmented, and with 2+ seeds.
............ ............ ............ ............ ......28 Flowers resupinate (the pedicel twisted 180 degrees), the banner 2.5-5.5 cm long and positioned lowermost.
............ ............ ............ ............ ........29 Calyx lobes equal to or longer than the calyx tube; fruits 3-5 mm wide
............ ............ ............ ............ ......28 Flowers not resupinate, the banner 0.7-2.5 cm long and positioned uppermost.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 31 Keel petal and the included style straight to gently upcurved; stems very slender, < 0.75 mm in diameter
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 31 Keel petal and the included style either strongly curved upwards 90-180 degrees, or even more extensively coiled (asymmetrically and spirally) in towards the flower center; stems slender to thicker, > 0.75 mm in diameter.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..32 Keel petal and the included style strongly curved upwards 90-180 degrees; corollas yellow or pink to lavender (or whitish).
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....33 Corollas pink to lavender (or whitish); corolla keel usually somewhat twisted, asymmetrical; [widespread in our region]
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....33 Corollas yellow; corolla keel symmetrical; [mainly outer Coastal Plain]
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..32 Keel petal and the included style extensively coiled > 180 degrees (asymmetrically and spirally) in towards the flower center; corollas pink, purple, maroon, purple-black (or whitish).
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......34 Peduncles long, the flowers borne in clusters on a raceme axis shorter than the peduncle; plants glabrate to villous, the hairs not hooked
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......34 Peduncles short, the flowers scattered along a (sometimes branched) raceme axis, the raceme axis about as long as or longer than the peduncle; plants uncinulate pubescent (use 20× magnification, or touch the plant for the 'tacky' feel)
............ ............ ............ ......22 Leaflet blades large, at least the largest terminal leaflets on a plant > 5 cm long.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........36 Stamens monadelphous; robust herbaceous vine with stems to 30 m long; flowers purple, when fresh smelling like artificial grape flavoring.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........36 Stamens diadelphous (9 and 1); herbaceous vines with stems usually < 5 m long; flowers various in color, not 'grapy' in odor.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 37 Flowers resupinate (the pedicel twisted 180 degrees), the banner (standard) petal lowermost; banner (standard) 25-50 mm long, much larger than the other petals.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 37 Flowers not resupinate, the banner (standard) uppermost; banner (standard) < 25 mm long, or if up to 30 mm then not much longer than the other petals.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....39 Fruit a loment (separating into single-seeded segments), uncinulate (with hooked hairs, the fruits attaching to hairs or clothes as 'stick-tights')
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....39 Fruit a several- to many-seeded legume, glabrous to hairy (but not uncinulate).
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........42 Leaflets with entire margins (sometimes with 1-2 rounded lobes); roots slender
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....45 Leaflets (2-) 4-8 cm long, 0.8-1.5 cm wide, 5-6× as long as wide; leaflet apices acute to obtuse; fruits not flanged or winged
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....45 Leaflets 6-14 cm long, 4-10 cm wide, 1-1.3× as long as wide; leaflet apices strongly acuminate; fruits with a flange or wing along the ventral suture
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........48 Keel petal and the included style straight to gently upcurved; stems very slender, < 0.75 mm in diameter
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........48 Keel petal and the included style strongly curved upwards 90-180 degrees; stems slender to thicker, > 0.75 mm in diameter
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......40 Keel petal and the included style either strongly curved upwards 90-180 degrees, or even more extensively coiled (asymmetrically and spirally) in towards the flower center; style or stigma pubescent.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 49 Plants uncinulate pubescent (use 20× magnification, or touch the plant for the 'tacky' feel)
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..50 Keel petal and the included style even more extensively coiled (asymmetrically and spirally) in towards the flower center.
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