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Key to Cissus

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1 Leaves 3-foliolate (less well-developed leaves may be simple and 3-lobed); leaf surfaces glabrous
1 Leaves simple; leaf surfaces pubescent with grayish-white, erect hairs

Key to Vitaceae

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1 Leaves simple, sometimes shallowly or deeply 3-5 (-7)-lobed.
..2 Tendrils not twining, terminating in adhesive disks; [tribe Parthenocisseae]
..2 Tendrils twining, lacking adhesive disks.
....3 Petals separate at their tips, falling individually; pith white, continuous through the node; bark adherent; tendrils bifid or trifid
......4 Petals 5; stamens 5; upper leaf surfaces glabrous; [tribe Ampelopsideae]
......4 Petals 4; stamens 4; upper leaf surfaces puberulent with upright, whitish-gray hairs; [tribe Cisseae]
....3 Petals connate at their tips, falling together; pith tan to brown, interrupted by a diaphragm at each node (Vitis) or continuous through the node (Muscadinia); bark adherent (Muscadinia) or exfoliating (Vitis); tendrils bifid or trifid (Vitis) or simple (Muscadinia); [tribe Viteae].
........5 Tendrils simple; bark adherent (on all but the largest stems), with prominent lenticels; pith continuous through nodes; leaves relatively small (< 10 cm long and wide) and coarsely toothed, pentagonal in outline, but never deeply lobed
........5 Tendrils bifid to trifid; bark shedding, the lenticels inconspicuous; pith interrupted by diaphragms at nodes; leaves relatively large (well-developed leaves usually > 10 cm wide and long) and finely toothed, often deeply lobed
1 Leaves compound with either 3-5 (-7) or numerous leaflets.
..........6 Leaves bipinnate to tripinnate, the leaflets on at least the better-developed leaves > 7; inflorescences axillary; [tribe Ampelopsideae]
..........6 Leaves 3-7-foliolate; inflorescences axillary, leaf-opposed, or terminal.
............ 7 Leaflets sessile; leaflets pinnately lobed; [tribe Ampelopsideae]
............ 7 Leaflets petiolulate; leaflets toothed or entire.
............ ..8 Leaves pedately 5-foliolate (the lateral 2 leaflets on either side borne on a common stalk, attached to one another above the summit of the petiole); [tribe Cayratieae]
............ ..8 Leaves palmately 3-7-foliolate (the petiolules of all leaflets joined at the summit of the petiole).
............ ....9 Inflorescences leaf-opposed or apparently terminal; leaves 3-7-foliolate; [tribe Parthenocisseae].
............ ....9 Inflorescences axillary or leaf-opposed; leaves 3-foliolate (even the largest and best-developed).
............ ......10 Leaves fleshy, the blades > 1 mm thick when fresh; inflorescence axillary; [tribe Cayratieae]
............ ......10 Leaves herbaceous, the blades thin; inflorescence leaf-opposed; [tribe Cisseae]
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