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Key to Eurybia, Eurybia: Key to Eurybia

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1 Basal and lower cauline leaves both distinctly petioled and with a cordate or subcordate blade; [subgenus Eurybia, section Eurybia].
1 Basal and lower cauline leaves either sessile and clasping or cuneate, or petioled and the blade cuneate to the petiole.
..2 Leaves linear, up to about 10 mm wide; leaves strongly basally disposed.
..2 Leaves broader, the largest on a plant over 15 mm wide; leaves somewhat basally disposed, the lowermost sometimes withering before flowering.

Key to Eurybia, Key A: Eurybia asters with long petioles and cordate or subcordate blades

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1 Outer phyllaries squarrose-reflexed; rhizomes short or absent, the plants not forming extensive clonal colonies; [of rich slopes and bottomlands of the lower Piedmont of NC, SC, GA, and AL].
..2 Involucre (10-) 11-13 mm tall; phyllaries 36-50, ovate, elliptic, or lanceolate, acute to acuminate at the apex, squarrose in life, often only the innermost squarrose in dried specimens, the reflexed portion with a distinct hyaline margin; ray florets 7-15, blue or violet; [of the lower Piedmont of GA and AL]
..2 Involucre 7-10 (-12) mm high; phyllaries 46-75 (-90), oblong-lanceolate, acute, obtuse, or rounded at the apex, squarrose in life, generally remaining so in dried specimens, the reflexed portion herbaceous with a narrow hyaline margin or none at all; ray florets (7-) 16-20 (-30), white or lavender; [of the lower Piedmont of s. NC and SC]
1 Outer phyllaries appressed (or slightly and irregularly spreading); rhizomes long, the plants forming extensive clonal colonies; [of various habitats and distribution].
....3 Branches of the inflorescence glandular-pubescent; ray flowers purplish or bluish
....3 Branches of the inflorescence not glandular-pubescent; ray flowers white (sometimes fading pinkish or lavender with age).
......4 Plants with basal leaves on well-developed shoots separate from the flowering shoots; larger leaves with 15-30 teeth per side
......4 Plants without basal leaves on well-developed shoots separate from the flowering shoots; larger leaves with 5-20 teeth per side.
........5 Basal rosettes formed in fall, withering in the spring and not present when plants flower and fruit; leaves scabrous below, hirsute above; [plants of IN, IL, MO, MI, WI, and IA]
........5 Basal rosettes forming in the spring, withering in the fall just before, during, or after flowering and fruiting; leaves sparsely pubescent on upper and lower surfaces; [plants of OH, KY, TN, and AL eastwards]
..........6 Longest peduncle in inflorescence > 1.5 cm long; involucre 6.5-9 (-10) mm tall; ray florets (8-) 12-16 (-20), the ray portion (10-) 17-18 (-20) mm long; disc flowers (12-) 17-26; [mostly of high mountain forests, primarily over 1200 m in elevation]
..........6 Longest peduncle in inflorescence < 1.5 cm long; involucre (3.5-) 4.2-6 (-7.5) mm tall; ray florets 5-10 (-12), the ray portion (5-) 10-15 mm long; disc flowers 12-19 (-25); [mostly of lower elevation forests, primarily below 1200 m in elevation]

Key to Eurybia, Key B: "Grass-bladed" Eurybia asters

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1 Inflorescence flat-topped (corymbiform); [subgenus Heleastrum, section Heleastrum].
..2 Ray flowers 15-35, (10-)15-20 mm long; involucres 9-11 mm wide, about as wide as long; [wet habitats in the Coastal Plain]
..2 Ray flowers 8-20, 5-10 mm long; involucres 6-9 mm wide, generally distinctly longer than wide; [habitats various].
....3 Plants rhizomatous, creeping; cauline leaves +/- sheathing, 2.5-14 cm x 2-5 (-10) mm; disc flowers 15-45; cypselas ~5 mm long; heads 3-15 (rarely more) in narrow corymbiform arrays; [seepage over thin soils on or near rock outcrops]
....3 Plants from caudices, clumping; cauline leaves +/- sessile, not sheathing, 2-7 cm x 5-20 mm; disc flowers 10-20; cypselas 2-3 mm long; heads 3-55 in broadly corymbiform arrays; [various dry to mesic habitats in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain but not occurring on rock outcrops]
1 Inflorescence elongate (spike-like or raceme-like).
......4 Stem spreading-hairy throughout; ray florets 25-60, white or pinkish; [endemic of FL Panhandle and adjacent sw. GA and se. AL]; [subgenus Heleastrum, section Eryngiifolii]
......4 Lower stem glabrous, upper stem variously hairy; ray florets 8-30, deep lavender or purple; [collectively widespread]
........5 Upper stem strigillose; phyllaries 48-64; ray florets 15-30; disc florets (40-) 52-80+; [widespread]; [subgenus Heleastrum, section Heleastrum]
........5 Upper stem villous to glabrescent; phyllaries 20-40; ray florets 8-17; disc florets 18-30; [endemic of FL Panhandle]; [subgenus Heleastrum, section Eryngiifolii]

Key to Eurybia, Key C: Eurybia asters XXX

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1 Leaves obviously veined beneath, usually toothed, hairy on the undersurface; [subgenus Eurybia, section Radulini].
..2 Larger leaves < 2.5 (-3.6) cm wide; rays purple; [of w. VA, WV, northward]
..2 Larger leaves > 4.0 cm wide; rays white to pale purple; [of the Cumberland Plateau of KY and n. TN]
1 Leaves very obscurely veined beneath, entire or nearly so, glabrous on the undersurface; [subgenus Eurybia, section Calliastrum].
....3 Ray florets 9-14; rays 5-15 mm long
....3 Ray florets 15-35; rays 10-25 mm long.
......4 Phyllaries slightly or not at all glandular-pubescent on the back (sometimes glandular-ciliate); involucre 7-12 mm high
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