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Key to Apiaceae

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1 Principal leaves either all simple (though sometimes palmately or pinnately lobed) or those that are basally disposed simple (those on the upper stem sometimes compound)
1 Principal leaves all variously compound (small bracteal leaves on the upper stem sometimes reduced and simple).
..2 Leaves 1-palmately or 1-pinnately compound (all leaflets attached to the summit of the petiole or to the primary inflorescence rachis).
....3 Leaves 1-palmately compound, all of the 3-7 leaflets attached to the summit of the petiole
....3 Leaves 1-pinnately compound, all of the 3-13 leaflets attached to a primary inflorescence rachis
..2 Leaves 2-5× compound, with 5-200+ leaf divisions, at least some attached to secondary or higher-order inflorescence axes.
......4 Leaves 2-4× pinnately or pinnately-ternately compound, the ultimate segments consisting of relatively few (usually < 25), discreet, typically broad (elliptic, ovate, or lanceolate) leaflets.
......4 Leaves 2-5× pinnately or pinnately-ternately decompound, the ultimate segments either linear and < 1 mm wide (and then either flat or angled in ×-section) or broader than 1 mm wide, but if broader then many (> 25) and often imperfectly separated from one another.
........5 Leaves 2-5× pinnately or pinnately-ternately decompound, the ultimate segments linear and < 1 mm wide (and then either flat or angled in ×-section)
........5 Leaves 2-5× pinnately or pinnately-ternately decompound, the ultimate segments broader than 1 mm wide, but if broader then many (> 25) and often imperfectly separated from one another

Key A: Apiaceae with simple leaves

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1 Leaves linear, lanceolate, or oblancolate, > 4× as long as wide.
..2 Leaves phyllodial (septate, hollow or flat, segmented); flowers white or purple; [plants of wetlands].
....3 Umbels simple; leaves spatulate, broader towards the tip, often somewhat flattened in ×-section, rounded or obtuse at the apex
....3 Umbels compound; leaves tapering to a pointed tip, either flat or terete in ×-section.
......4 Leaves flat in ×-section, with obvious parallel venation and less obvious septae / cross-partitions
......4 Leaves terete in ×-section, the septae obvious.
........5 Plants 1-11 dm tall, annuals, sometimes mat-forming and adventiously perennial; fruits 1-3 mm long, with lateral ribs; rays 3-15
........5 Plants 6-24 dm tall, perennials from rhizomes or tubers; fruits 4-9 mm long, with lateral wings; rays 5-20
..2 Leaves “normal” (non-septate, flat, continuous, and in some cases lobed, toothed, or spinose-margined); flowers blue, yellow, white, or whitish-green; [plants of wetlands or uplands].
..........6 Flowers borne in involucrate heads; corolla blue or greenish-white
..........6 Flowers in compound umbels; corolla yellow or white.
............ 7 Stem leaves similar to the basal, all simple; corollas yellow; [alien, of disturbed areas]
............ 7 Stem leaves palmately 3-5-foliolate with linear leaflets, differing from the simple basal leaves; corollas white; [native, of blackland prairies and associated disturbed areas, from AL and TN westward]
1 Leaves orbicular, ovate, or elliptic, < 4× as long as wide.
............ ..8 Leaves orbicular, about as wide as, or wider than, long; base peltate or cordate.
............ ....9 Leaves leathery, with spinose margins; inflorescence a head; flowers blue; [rare introduction]
............ ....9 Leaves herbaceous or somewhat fleshy. toothed or lobed, but not spinose; inflorescence umbellate or verticillate; flowers white, greenish, or purplish; [collectively common and widespread].
............ ......10 Foliage and fruits (or ovaries) stellate-pubescent or glochidiate; leaves lobed, but otherwise entire; [rare alien]
............ ......10 Foliage and fruits (or ovaries) glabrous; leaves toothed, sometimes also lobed; [common natives and aliens]
............ ..8 Leaves ovate or elliptic, 1.2-4× as wide as long; base cordate, peltate, or truncate.
............ ........11 Leaves perfoliate; flowers yellow; [rare aliens].
............ ..........12 Stem leaves entire; umbellets subtended by broad foliaceous bractlets
............ ..........12 Stem leaves serrate; umbellets lacking bractlets
............ ........11 Leaves cordate or truncate at the base; flowers white, green, yellow, blue, or purple;
............ ............ 13 Flowers greenish or blue; leaves all simple (sometimes stem leaves lobed); inflorescence a head or very congested (subcapitate) umbel; [plants of wetland situations, prostrate, creeping, or erect].
............ ............ ..14 Inflorescence a very congested (subcapitate) umbel, with 4-9 flowers; leaves cordate at the base, long-petiolate, the petioles characteristically 2× as long as the leaf
............ ............ ..14 Inflorescence a head, with > 20 flowers; leaves cuneate to truncate at the base, sessile to short petiolate, the petioles < 1× as long as the leaf (except E. prostratum)
............ ............ 13 Flowers yellow or purple; basal leaves simple, stem leaves usually compound; Inflorescence a compound umbel; [erect plants of upland situations].
............ ............ ....15 Fruits (partly to fully mature) with thin-edged wings; flowers yellow or purple; central flower of each umbellet staminate and pedicelled; fruits all pedicelled in all umbellets
............ ............ ....15 Fruits ribbed (with rounded, cordlike ribs), lacking thin-edged wings; flowers yellow; central flower of each umbellet either staminate and pedicelled, or pistillate and sessile; fruits all pedicelled in some umbellets (those with a staminate central flower), or the central fruit sessile in some umbellets (those with a pistillate central flower)

Key B: Apiaceae with 1-palmate leaves

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1 Leaflets narrowly lanceolate or linear, > 8× as long as wide, entire; umbels compound and regular, the rays and pedicels each of relatively uniform lengths; leaves 3-5-foliolate.
..2 Fruit 2-3 mm long; leaves 1-5-foliolate; [of calcareous or rich moist to wet areas, AL and TN and westward]
..2 Fruit 3-5 mm long; leaves 1-3-foliolate; [of saturated acid wetlands, of the FL Panhandle, e. GA, e. SC, e. NC, and e. VA]
1 Leaflets ovate, obovate, broadly lanceolate, or broadly oblanceolate, 1-5× as long as wide, serrate or variously incised or cleft; umbels compound and irregular, the rays and/or pedicels of widely varying lengths; leaves 3-7-foliolate.
....3 Rays 3-8, the involucre absent or inconspicuous; umbellets with 3-10 pedicellate perfect flowers; fruits linear-oblong, glabrous; leaves 3-foliolate, the lateral leaflets often 2-parted; corollas white
....3 Rays few, the involucre of prominent, broad, foliaceous bracts; umbellets with 3 sessile to subsessile or short-pedicellate perfect flowers and a variable number of pedicellate staminate flowers; fruits ovoid, obovoid, or subglobose, covered with uncinate bristles; leaves palmately 3-7-foliolate, the lateral sometimes 2-parted; corollas greenish-white, yellowish-green, or white

Key C: Apiaceae with 1-pinnate leaves

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1 Larger leaves 20-50 cm wide, 3 (-5) foliolate, many of the leaflets deeply lobed into segments often > 10 cm wide; fruits 8-15 mm long, pubescent; petioles sheathing and also strongly dilated
1 Larger leaves 3-25 cm wide, 5-15 (or more) foliolate, the leaflets variously toothed, if also deeply lobed, the segments < 3 cm wide; fruits 1-7 mm wide; petioles sheathing, not dilated.
..2 Leaves septate (phyllodial), the lateral leaflets attached at septae
..2 Leaves non-septate, non-phyllodial (normal and standard issue).
....3 Leaflets entire or with a few teeth (rarely as many as 7 on each side), these usually near the midpoint of the leaflet; fruits 4-7 mm long; corolla white
....3 Leaflets rather finely toothed (and sometimes also deeply lobed), the teeth evenly disposed along the margins; fruits 1-6 mm long; corolla white or yellow.
......4 Corolla yellow; fruits 5-6 mm long; longer rays in each compound umbel > 5 cm long
......4 Corolla white or pink; fruits 1-5 mm long; longer rays in each compound umbel < 4 cm long.
........5 Leaflets obtuse to broadly rounded, < 1.5× as long as wide; upper leaves often dramatically more dissected (i.e., bipinnate) and with narrower leaflets or segments than the basal and lower leaves; [plants of disturbed upland situations].
..........6 Bracteoles present subtending the umbellets; outer flowers of the umbellet asymmetric, with the outer petals larger and often bifid (raylike); annuals; stems solid
..........6 Bracteoles absent; all flowers radially symmetrical; biennials or perennials; stems hollow or solid
........5 Leaflets acute to acuminate at the apex, > 1.5× as long as wide; upper leaves similar to the basal in shape and degree of dissection, smaller or with fewer leaflets if they differ at all; [plants of wetlands].
............ 7 Umbels sessile or subsessile; leaf margins crenate; highly dissected submersed leaves absent
............ 7 Umbels on stout peduncles 4-10 cm long; leaf margins sharply serrate; highly dissected submersed leaves sometimes present

Key D: Apiaceae with leaves 2-4× pinnately-ternately compound, the ultimate leaflets distinct and relatively broad

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1 Leaflets entire.
..2 Leaflets linear (resembling winged rachises); corolla white
..2 Leaflets broad, elliptic, ovate, or obovate, sparingly lobed; corolla yellow
1 Leaflets variously serrate, dentate, and/or incised.
....3 Plants in flower.
......4 Corolla yellow, maroon, or pale creamy yellow.
........5 Flowers yellow, maroon, or pale creamy-yellow; central flower of each umbellet staminate and pedicelled; fruits all pedicelled in all umbellets; developing fruits subterete to slightly dorsally compressed, several or all of the ribs with thin-edged wings
........5 Flowers yellow; central flower of each umbellet either staminate and pedicelled, or pistillate and sessile; fruits all pedicelled in some umbellets (those with a staminate central flower), or the central fruit sessile in some umbellets (those with a pistillate central flower); developing fruits laterally compressed, all of the ribs rounded and cordlike
......4 Corolla white. {Add to keylead 4b: Apium graveolens var. dulce, Cicuta bolanderi, Cicuta mexicana, Imperatoria ostruthium, Petroselinum crispum}
..........6 Ovary hispid or pubescent.
............ 7 Rays 16-25; leaves somewhat coriaceous; leaflet bases often cuneate or obliquely truncate; [plants of dry habitats]
............ 7 Rays 3-5; leaves thin in texture; leaflet bases rounded, subcordate, or broadly cuneate; [plants of moist forests]
..........6 Ovary glabrous.
............ ..8 Plants 1-9 dm tall at maturity; [rarely naturalized aliens].
............ ....9 Ovary (and later the fruits) terete, the ribs corky-winged; [plants of wetlands]
............ ....9 Ovary (and later the fruits) laterally compressed, not winged; [plants of uplands]
............ ......10 Umbellets (rays) 9-15 per umbel
............ ......10 Umbellets (rays) (25-) 50-100 per umbel
............ ..8 Plants 6-18 dm tall at maturity; [collectively common and widespread natives].
............ ........11 Sheaths of the upper leaves dilated, > 1 cm wide when flattened; [plants of moist habitats, from GA northward in the Mountains, extending into adjacent provinces towards the northern edge of our area]
............ ........11 Sheaths of the upper leaves not dilated, < 1 cm wide; [plants either of wetlands or of moist to dry forests].
............ ..........12 Veins of the leaflets directed to the sinuses; leaflets mostly 2.5-5× as long as wide, acuminate at the tip; [of wetlands]
............ ..........12 Veins of the leaflets directed to the tips of the teeth or lobes; leaflets mostly 1.3-1.8× as long as wide, acute to obtuse at the tip; [of moist to dry forests]
....3 Plants in fruit.
............ ............ 13 Fruit hispid or pubescent (regardless of winging).
............ ............ ..14 Fruits 4-6 mm long, hispid across the surfaces; rays 16-25; leaves somewhat coriaceous; leaflet bases often cuneate or obliquely truncate; [plants of dry habitats]
............ ............ ..14 Fruits 18-24 mm long, oblanceolate or linear, appressed-pubescent on the ribs; rays 3-5; leaves thin in texture; leaflet bases rounded, subcordate, or broadly cuneate; [plants of moist forests]
............ ............ 13 Fruit glabrous (sometimes winged or prominently ribbed as well).
............ ............ ....15 Fruits dorsally compressed (strongly to slightly) or subterete, either thin-winged or corky-winged.
............ ............ ......16 Ribs very corky; fruits 2-3 mm long; [rare aquatic or semiaquatic alien]
............ ............ ......16 Ribs thin-winged; fruits 3-8 mm long; [common natives of most to submesic forests].
............ ............ ........17 Rays 12-30; fruits 4-8 mm long; plant 6-20 dm tall; sheaths of the upper leaves dilated, > 1 cm wide when flattened
............ ............ ........17 Rays 5-10; fruits 3-6 mm long; plant 5-10 dm tall; sheaths of the upper leaves not dilated, < 1 cm wide
............ ............ ....15 Fruits laterally compressed, not winged (except thin-winged in Ligusticum).
............ ............ ..........18 Veins of the leaflets directed to the sinuses; leaflets mostly 2.5-5× as long as wide, acuminate at the tip; [of wetlands]
............ ............ ..........18 Veins of the leaflets either directed to the tips of the teeth or lobes, or reticulating extensively and becoming obscure before reaching the margin; leaflets mostly 1.3-1.8× as long as wide, acute to obtuse at the tip; [of moist to dry forests].
............ ............ ............ 19 Leaflet venation palmate-ternate, each leaflet with 3 (-5) main veins from the base (the central vein then with pinnate secondary veins); plants from rhizomes
............ ............ ............ 19 Leaflet venation pinnate, each leaflet with a dominant central vein (it then with pinnate secondary veins); plants from a caudex, taproot, or cluster of fibrous or fleshy roots.
............ ............ ............ ..20 Lateral veins of the leaflet parallel and straight, clearly extending to the tip of each tooth; leaflet base often strongly oblique; leaflet margin entire in the lower ¼ to 1/3
............ ............ ............ ..20 Lateral veins of the leaflet arcing, reticulating and becoming obscure before reaching the leaflet margin; leaflet base symmetrical or slightly oblique; leaflet margin toothed to or very close to the base
............ ............ ............ ....21 Umbellets (rays) per umbel (25-) 50-100
............ ............ ............ ....21 Umbellets (rays) per umbel 4-25

Key E: Apiaceae with leaves 2-4× pinnately-ternately compound, the ultimate leaflets linear and < 1 mm wide

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1 Corolla yellow; rays 15-40; plants 5-21 dm tall; fruits ca. 2× as long as wide; [naturalized aromatic culinary herbs of upland situations].
..2 Petiolar sheaths of the principal leaves 1-2.5 (-3) cm long; mericarps dorsally flattened, at least the lateral ribs thin-winged; fresh plants with dill odor; annual
..2 Petiolar sheaths of the principal leaves 3-10 cm long; mericarps subterete or slightly laterally flattened, the ribs not winged; fresh plants with fennel odor; biennial or perennial
1 Corolla white; rays 5-20; plants 1-15 dm tall; fruits either 4-5× as long as wide (narrowly oblong), or 0.5-1.5× as long as wide ovoid, spherical, or strongly bilobed and wider than long; [native or naturalized herbs of upland or wetland situations].
....3 Mericarps (and ovary) ornamented with tubercles, spines, or sharp-pointed projections ("scabes", in addition to the ribs (use at least 10× magnification).
......4 Schizocarp ovoid-oblong to urceolate-ovoid or broadly ellipsoid, ribs sparsely to densely scaberulous with single-celled papilla-like projections
......4 Schizocarp broadly ovoid to ellipsoid or elliptic-ovoid, ribs and intervals variously hairy or at least tuberculate
....3 Mericarps (and ovary) glabrous.
........5 Umbels leaf-opposed; umbels simple to compound.
........5 Umbels terminal or on axillary branches; umbels compound.
..........6 Fruits 8-10 mm long, oblong-linear
..........6 Fruits 1.5-6 mm long, ovoid to subglobose, or strongly bilobed and then wider than long
............ 7 Fruits distinctly wider than long, 4-7 mm wide, bilobed, each lobe (mericarp) subglobose; outer flowers of each umbellet radiant (the petals larger to the outside of the umbellet)
............ ..8 Involucre of bracts present (subtending each umbellet); fruit 4-5 mm broad; mericarp ribs evident; [native, AL, AR, OK, LA, and TX]
............ ..8 Involucre of bracts absent; fruit 5-7 mm broad; mericarp ribs obsolete; [non-native waif, reported from NJ, PA, and MD]
............ 7 Fruits somewhat longer than wide, 1.5-4 mm wide; outer flowers of umbellets similar in size and form to the inner flowers.
............ ....9 Umbellets per umbel (=rays) 50-100+; [ballast waif, reported from a few old ports]
............ ....9 Umbellets per umbel (=rays) 2-30; [collectively widespread and common].
............ ......10 Non-sheathing portion of petioles 0-0.5 cm long (the leaf divisions starting at the summit of the sheath)
............ ......10 Non-sheathing portion of petioles 5-10 cm long.
............ ........11 Plants annual or biennial; [non-native, weed or waif]
............ ........11 Plants perennial from tubers; [native from OH, KY, TN, AL westward]

Key F: Apiaceae with leaves 2-4× pinnately-ternately compound, the ultimate leaflets broader than 1 mm wide and many >25) and often imperfectly separated from one another (clone); fruits ornamented with hairs, bristles, barbs, or tubercles (clone)

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1 Fruit with a flat, straight beak 2-7 cm long, hispid-ciliate along the margins
1 Fruit beakless or essentially so.
..2 Plants perennial or biennial (annual in Daucus pusillus), 3-20 dm tall; rays 12-60.
..2 Plants annual (sometimes perennnial in Anthriscus), 0.5-8 (-10) dm tall; rays 1-7 (or to as many as 20 in Anthriscus).
....3 Rays (1-) 3 (-5); mericarps 5.5-10 mm long, glabrous or pubescent with weak appressed hairs
....3 Rays 3-12; mericarps 3-6 mm long, glabrous or densely bristled with hooked (uncinate) bristles.
......4 Ribs of the mericarp obsolete; rays 3-5
......4 Ribs of the mericarp prominent (paler than the intervals); rays 5-12

Key G: Apiaceae with leaves 2-4× pinnately-ternately compound, the ultimate leaflets broader than 1 mm wide and many >25) and often imperfectly separated from one another (clone); fruits glabrous, not ornamented

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1 Plants perennial or biennial, 3-30 dm tall; rays 12-60.
..2 Fruits 5-11 mm long, 4-7 mm broad; corollas yellow; [native, IN, KY, TN, and AL westward]
..2 Fruits 2-6 mm long, 1.7-3.5 mm broad; corollas white; [either native, NY, NJ, PA, w. VA, w. NC, and s. IN northward, or alien and widespread].
....3 Fruits 4-6 mm long; plant from a cluster of fleshy roots; [native, rare and northern]
....3 Fruits 2-2.5 mm long; plant from a thickened taproot; [collectively common plant of mostly disturbed areas]
1 Plants annual (perennial in Erigenia and sometimes Anthriscus), 0.5-8 (-10) dm tall; rays 1-7 (or to as many as 20 in Anthriscus, Torilis, and Aethusa).
......4 Plants perennial from a globose tuber; flowering Feb-Mar; [of rich forests]
......4 Plants annual (or sometimes a short-lived perennial in Anthriscus) from fibrous roots; flowering Apr-Jun; [of rich forests or weedy situations].
........5 Rays (1-) 3 (-5); mericarps 5.5-10 mm long, glabrous or pubescent with weak appressed hairs
........5 Rays 3-12; mericarps 3-6 mm long, glabrous or densely bristled with hooked (uncinate) bristles.
..........6 Mericarps ovoid, acute, not beaked
..........6 Mericarps lanceolate, with an evident beak 1-3 mm long
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