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1 Sporangia covering the lower leaflet surface; fertile leaves 2-pinnate; [subfamily Stenochlaenoideae]
....3 Leaves dimorphic, the sterile leaves pinnatifid, the pinnae 7-10 pairs per leaf, basally not distinct from one another, the rachis therefore winged by leaf tissue throughout its length, the pinnae merely finely serrulate
......4 Rachis lacking proliferous buds in its upper portion; longer pinnae of a leaf 10-20 cm long; [widespread, native]
......4 Rachis with proliferous buds in its upper portion; longer pinnae of a leaf 20-45 cm long; [rare, alien]
........5 Leaf blades usually < 5 dm long; leaves pinnate-pinnatifid in all or part; margins entire (to sparingly and irregularly serrulate); [subfamily Blechnoideae]
........5 Leaf blades usually > 5 dm long; leaves pinnate throughout; margins serrulate; [subfamily Stenochlaenoideae]