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For Abies

Fernald, M.L. 1909. A new variety of Abies balsamea. Rhodora 11: 201-203.

Fulling, E.H. 1934. Identification, by leaf structure, of the species of Abies cultivated in the United States. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 61(9): 497-524.

Fulling, E.H. 1936. Abies intermedia, the Blue Ridge Fir, a new species. J. Southern Appalachian Botanical Club 1(8): 91-94.

Hunt, R.S. 1993. Abies. In Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 1993b. Flora of North America north of Mexico. Volume 2, pteridophytes and gymnosperms. Oxford Univ. Press, New York, NY. 475 pp.

Liu, T.-S. 1971. A monograph of the genus Abies. Dept. of Forestry, National Taiwan University, Taipei.

Page. 1990. In Kramer, K.U., and P.S. Green. 1990. Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms. In K. Kubitzki, ed., The families and genera of vascular plants. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Poindexter, D.B. 2010b. Abies firma (Pinaceae) naturalized in North America. Phytoneuron 2010-41: 1-7.

Potter, K.M., J. Frampton, S.A. Josserand, and C.D. Nelson. 2010. Evolutionary history of two endemic Appalachian conifers revealed using microsatellite markers. Conserv. Genet. 11: 1499-1513.

Robinson, J.F. 1968. Natural variation in Abies of the southern Appalachians. M.S. thesis, Univ. Tennessee-Knoxville.

Xiang, Q.-P. R. Wei, Y.-M. Zhu, AJ Harris, X.-C. Zhang. 2018. New infrageneric classification of Abies in light of molecular phylogeny and high diversity in western North America. J. Syst. Evol. 56(5): 562-572.

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