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Frodin, D.G., and R. Govaerts. 2003. World checklist and bibliography of Araliaceae. Kew Botanic Gardens, Kew, England.

Moore, G., S.D. Glenn, and J. Ma. 2009. Distribution of the native Aralia spinosa and non-native Aralia elata (Araliaceae) in the northeastern United States. Rhodora 111: 145-154.

Plunkett, G.M., J. Wen, P.P. Lowry II, A.D. Mitchell, M.J. Henwood, and P. Fiaschi. 2018. Araliaceae. In Kadereit, J., & V. Bittrich. 2018. The families and genera of flowering plants. XV. Flowering plants. Eudicots. Apiales, Gentianales (except Rubiaceae). Springer, Cham.

Smith, A.C. 1944. Araliaceae. North American Flora 28B: 3-41. N.Y. Botanical Garden, New York.

Smith, E.B. 1982a. Juvenile and adult leaflet phases in Aralia spinosa (Araliaceae). Sida 9: 330-332.

Wen, J. 1993. Generic delimitation of Aralia (Araliaceae). Brittonia 45: 47-55.

Wen, J. 1998. Systematics and biogeography of the AraliaPanax complex (Araliaceae) [abstract]. Amer. J. Bot. 85 [supplement]: 166.

Wen, J. 2011. Systematics and biogeography of Aralia L. (Araliaceae): revision of sections Aralia, Humiles, Nanae, and Sciadodendron. Cont. U.S. National Herbarium 57: 1-172.

Wen, J., S. Shi, R.K. Jansen, and E.A. Zimmer. 1998. Phylogeny and biogeography of Aralia sect. Aralia (Araliaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 85: 866-875.

Zuo, Y.-J., J. Wen, and S.-L. Zhou. 2017. Intercontinental and intracontinental biogeography of the eastern Asian -- North America disjunct Panax (the ginseng genus, Araliaceae), emphasizing its diversification processes in eastern Asia. Molecular Phylogenetics and Systematics 117: 60-74.

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